Saturday, September 25, 2004

web proper names redux from Harry Halpin on 2004-09-25 (www-rdf-interest@w3.org from September 2004) 

The email message at web proper names redux from Harry Halpin on 2004-09-25 (www-rdf-interest@w3.org from September 2004) from Harry Halpin is a summary of the discussion of the Web Proper Names proposal on rdf-interest.

Least effort and the origins of scaling in human language 

Least effort and the origins of scaling in human language
"Many authors have pointed out that tradeoffs of utility concerning hearer and speaker needs to appear at many levels. As for the phonological level, speakers want to minimize articulatory effort and hence encourage brevity and phonological reduction. Hearers want to minimize the effort of understanding and hence desire explicitness and clarity (3, 10). Regarding the lexical level (10, 11), the effort for the hearer has to do with determining what the word actually means. The higher the ambiguity (i.e., the number of meanings) of a word, the higher the effort for the hearer. Besides, the speaker will tend to choose the most frequent words. The availability of a word is positively correlated with its frequency. The phenomenon known as the word-frequency effect (12) supports it. The most frequent words tend to be the most ambiguous ones (13). Thereafter, the speaker tends to choose the most ambiguous words, which is opposed to the least effort for the hearer. Zipf referred to the lexical tradeoff as the principle of least effort. He pointed out that it could explain the pattern of word frequencies, but he did not give a rigorous proof of its validity (11). Word frequencies obey Zipf's law. If the words of a sample text are ordered by decreasing frequency, the frequency of the kth word, P(k), is given by P(k) k−α, with α ≈ 1 (11). This pattern is robust and widespread (14)."

Friday, September 24, 2004

SWAD-Europe: FOAF Workshop @ DERI Galway (1-2 Sept 2004) 

SWAD-Europe: FOAF Workshop @ DERI Galway (1-2 Sept 2004) Many papers about FOAF, RDF, Semantic Web, Trust, Privacy, RSS, and so on.

Kazaa 

Kazaa
Peer to peer system to "Search for and download music, movies, games, software, images and documents."

Morpheus :: peer-to-peer file sharing software 

Morpheus :: peer-to-peer file sharing software "Connect to millions of NEOnet, Kazaa, iMesh, eDonkey, Gnutella, Limewire, and G2* users to get more results than you have ever experienced!"

Scalable Percolation Search in Power Law Networks 

[cond-mat/0406152] Scalable Percolation Search in Power Law Networks
"We introduce a scalable searching algorithm for finding nodes and contents in random networks with Power-Law (PL) and heavy-tailed degree distributions. The network is searched using a probabilistic broadcast algorithm, where a query message is relayed on each edge with probability just above the bond percolation threshold of the network. We show that if each node caches its directory via a short random walk, ... We discuss how this percolation search algorithm can be directly adapted to solve the well-known scaling problem in unstructured Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks. Simulations of the protocol on sample large-scale subnetworks of existing P2P services show that overall traffic can be reduced by almost two-orders of magnitude, without any significant loss in search performance."

Thursday, September 23, 2004

Ontaria 0.8 

Ontaria 0.8 "Ontaria is a searchable and browsable directory of semantic web data. Our focus is RDF vocabularies with OWL ontologies, but all the RDF data we index is visible. The site is primarily intended for people creating RDF content who want to better understand which vocabularies are available and how they are being used. Beyond this, Ontaria may be useful for finding and exploring arbitrary RDF content."

Security Advisor - Home 

Security Advisor - Home is an open-source security audit product written in Python. "When I ask someone if they want to be secure online, I always get a positive response. Yet when I ask what they are doing to be secure, most have no good answer. People don't know what to do, or what not to do.

The goal of Security Advisor is to change that.

Security Advisor will focus on gathering information about systems and networks, then providing as much analysis on that information as possible. This analysis will not simply include a list of known vulnerabilities, but suggestions on other applications, designs, configuration settings or considerations.

At no point above did I say Security Advisor would change anything. Security Advisor is only there to give advice while providing as much supporting information as possible. Nothing more, nothing less."

Simple search lightens Net load TRN 090804 

Simple search lightens Net load TRN 090804 "Researchers working on finding better ways to search the Internet are increasingly turning to methods that require individual nodes, or servers, to know a little bit about nearby servers, but don't require servers to look much beyond their own neighborhoods."

Biglumber - key signing coordination 

Biglumber - key signing coordination "Welcome to biglumber! This site is designed to help expand webs of trust by coordinating key signings. You can look up a location to see who is willing to sign a key there, as well as any key signing parties that may be taking place nearby.

If you are not familiar with GnuPG, encryption, and webs of trust, please take a look at the
GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPg) page. You can also check out the links page once within the site."

The GNU Privacy Guard - GnuPG.org 

The GNU Privacy Guard - GnuPG.org "GnuPG is a complete and free replacement for PGP. Because it does not use the patented IDEA algorithm, it can be used without any restrictions. GnuPG is a RFC2440 (OpenPGP) compliant application."

Morphosemantic Relations In and AcrossWordnets 

Morphosemantic Relations In and AcrossWordnets
"Abstract.
Morphological processes in a language can be effectively used to enrich individual wordnets with semantic relations. More importantly, morphological processes in a language can be used to discover less explicit semantic relations in other languages. This will both improve the internal connectivity of individual wordnets and also the overlap across different wordnets. Using morphology to improve the quality of wordnets and to automatically prepare synset glosses are two other possible applications."

alphaWorks : Emerging Topic : Semantics 

alphaWorks : Emerging Topic : Semantics

Wednesday, September 22, 2004

RDFWeb: xmlns.com: WOT RDF Vocabulary 

RDFWeb: xmlns.com: WOT RDF Vocabulary

Lost in the Hermeneutic Hall of Mirrors 

Lost in the Hermeneutic Hall of Mirrors: "hermeneutic"

VIVID Home - Information Sciences Division 

VIVID Home - Information Sciences Division

SemWebCentral: Project Info- Visual Variable-Depth Info Display 

SemWebCentral: Project Info- Visual Variable-Depth Info Display

Tuesday, September 21, 2004

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 

RFC 1777 - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

LDAP Tutorial 

LDAP Tutorial

Monday, September 20, 2004

Referential Semantics: Theories and Problems 

Referential Semantics: Theories and Problems
"How and why do words and sentences mean what they mean? This is the deceptively simple framing of the problem of natural language semantics. In reality, things are not so simple that they can be summed up in a simple statement like that. Not only is there disagreement among linguists and semanticists about what sort of semantic theory we want to have, there is also a deeper disagreement about what questions any sort of semantic theory should be answering.

One possible answer, that will at least allow us to start framing and examining theories, is that semantics should be concerned with describing the relation between our words and the world around us. That is, semantics deals in theories of reference, which try to explain how the linguistic expressions we use refer to things in the world. And not only any thing in the world; the right thing in the world. After all, it will do us no good to have a semantic theory that lets us the use the word "cat" to refer to a dog."

Resource and Representation Relationship Vocabulary 

Resource and Representation Relationship Vocabulary by Jon Hanna is about "A common cause of confusion and complaint about the web has been the exact nature of the relationship between a resource and the representation or representations of that resource that one can retrieve by dereferencing it's URI."

RE: Information Resources? (naming things on the Web) from Jon Hanna on 2004-09-13 (www-tag@w3.org from September 2004) 

RE: Information Resources? (naming things on the Web) from Jon Hanna on 2004-09-13 (www-tag@w3.org from September 2004) is a pretty severe critique of Web Proper Names.

Sunday, September 19, 2004

Google Search: frege symbol sense referent 

Google Search: frege symbol sense referent

Comparing Frege and Russell 

Comparing Frege and Russell
"Frege's and Russell's views are obviously different, but because of certain superficial similarities in how they handle certain famous puzzles about proper names, they are often assimilated. Where proper names are concerned, both Frege and Russell are often described together as "descriptivists." But their views are fundamentally different. To see that, let's look at the puzzle of names without bearers, as it arises in the context of Mill's purely referential theory of proper names, aka the 'Fido'-Fido theory."

NLP: Introduction to Semantics 

NLP: Introduction to Semantics "For those in the logical tradition of semantics, modern semantics begins with Frege. In 'On Sense and Reference' Frege asked a deceptively simple question: how is it that a statement of the form 'a = b' can be informative, whereas a statement of the form 'a = a', being a truth of logic, can be known a priori?"

java.net Weblogs: The Future of the Semantic Web is Here Today and is Evenly Distributed 

java.net Weblogs: The Future of the Semantic Web is Here Today and is Evenly Distributed

Web Proper Names: Naming Referents on the Web 

Web Proper Names: Naming Referents on the Web

"The value of the World Wide Web stems in large part from the fact that the varied constituents of the Web are about things--they describe things or picture things or discuss things. Often, although not always, these things are not themselves on the Web, rather they exist in the physical world. The ability to understand something as being about something, as being oriented towards something else without any direct connection to it, is crucial to human intelligence. Any effort to make the Web more intelligent, for example by automating the exploitation of resources on the Web, will have to somehow reproduce the human ability to understand what things are about.

This is an issue of immense practical importance: when someone searches the Web, they are looking for information about something. At present no automatic processes exist to index, organise, share, or even decide what web resources are about--all searches have to work with is text. The effort to provide machine-readable metadata through standards such as RDF and description logics as embodied in OWL are efforts to improve this situation. Although such efforts do allow a human to express what they believe a web-page is about in a standard way, they still beg the question of how to interoperably identify real-world things in such metadata.

Unfortunately, no-one from professional logicians to philosophers of consciousness have a solid idea about how we determine whether or not a thing is actually about something else. On the surface this aboutness seems physically spooky: I can think about the Eiffel Tower in Paris without being in Paris, or even having ever set foot in France. I can imagine what the Eiffel Tower would look like if it was painted blue. I can even think of a situation where the Eiffel Tower wasn't called the Eiffel Tower. Most importantly for our purposes, I can view a web page, either by typing a URL such as http:://www.tour-eiffel.fr/ into a browser or by typing Eiffel into a search engine and following one of the links it provides. Having done this, I know at a glance if the page is actually about the Eiffel Tower, or a hotel near the Eiffel Tower, as opposed to the object-oriented programming language Eiffel, or the film The Lavender Hill Mob, and so on. Yet this knowledge depends on fundamental aspects of human intelligence such as language understanding, scene recognition and so forth, which have proved distressingly resistant to automation."

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