Saturday, December 11, 2004

Mauro Cherubini's weblog - Blog Archive - Evolving Communication through the Inference of Meaning 

Mauro Cherubini's weblog - Blog Archive - Evolving Communication through the Inference of Meaning
Comments about Andrew Smith's thesis: "Particularly, I was interested in the approach of the author, who seems to not rely on my idea of grounded discussion"

Icon Design by David Vignoni : icon king v2 >> index 

Icon Design by David Vignoni : icon king v2 >> index

Friday, December 10, 2004

Language Evolution and Computation Research Unit 

Language Evolution and Computation Research Unit: "Welcome to the homepage of the Language Evolution and Computation Research Unit. We are part of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, within the School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences at the University of Edinburgh. Our focus is on understanding the origins and evolution of language and communication. We have pioneered the application of computational and mathematical modelling techniques to traditional issues in language acquisition, change and evolution. The overall goal is to develop a theory of language as a complex adaptive system operating on multiple time-scales."

Andrew D.M. Smith, University of Edinburgh 

Andrew D.M. Smith, University of Edinburgh

Mutual Exclusivity: Overcoming Conceptual Divergence 

Mutual Exclusivity: Overcoming Conceptual Divergence
Author: Andrew D.M. Smith   Date: 2004   Format: PDF(PPT)
"Outline
1. As a culturally-transmitted communication system, language is based on the inference of meaning: this can explain both language evolution and language change.

2. The mutual exclusivity bias allows successful communication without requiring identical conceptual structures."

Evolving Communication through the Inference of Meaning 

Evolving Communication through the Inference of Meaning
Author: Andrew D. M. Smith   Date: 9/2003   Format: PDF
"Abstract
In this thesis, I address the problem of how successful communication systems can emerge between agents who do not have innate or explicitly transferable meanings, cannot read the minds of their interlocutors, and are not provided with any feedback about the communication process. I develop a solution by focusing on the role of meanings within the framework of language evolution, and on communication through the repeated inference of meaning.

Much recent work on the evolution of language has concentrated on the emergence of compositional syntax as the crucial event which marked the genesis of language; all the experimental models which purport to demonstrate the emergence of syntax, however, rely on models of communication in which the signals are redundant and which contain pre-defined, structured meaning systems which provide an explicit blueprint against which the syntactic structure is built. Moreover, the vast majority of such meaning systems are truly semantic in name only, lacking even the basic semantic characteristics of sense and reference, and the agents must rely on mind-reading or feedback (or both) in order to learn how to communicate.

By contrast, at the heart of this thesis is a solution to the signal redundancy paradox based on the inference of meaning and the disambiguation of potential referents through exposure in multiple contexts. I describe computational models of meaning creation in which agents independently develop individual conceptual structures based on their own experiences of the environment, and show through experimental simulations that the agents can use their own individual meanings to communicate with each other about items in their environment. I demonstrate that the development of successful communication depends to a large extent on the synchronisation of the agents’ conceptual structures, and that such synchronisation is significantly more likely to occur when the agents use an intelligent meaning creation strategy which can exploit the structure in the information in the environment.

Motivated by research into the acquisition of language by children, I go on to explore how the introduction of specific cognitive and lexical biases affects the level of communicative success. I show that if the agents are guided by an assumption of mutual exclusivity in word meanings, they do not need to have such high levels of meaning similarity, and can instead communicate successfully despite having very divergent conceptual structures."

Thursday, December 09, 2004

Google Search: ontology "discrimination trees" 

Google Search: ontology "discrimination trees"

Google Search: "ontology" "pattern matching" "symbol grounding" 

Google Search: "ontology" "pattern matching" "symbol grounding"

Google Search: "common knowledge" "symbol Grounding" 

Google Search: "common knowledge" "symbol Grounding"

Google Search: filetype:pdf "feature detection" "symbol grounding" 

Google Search: filetype:pdf "feature detection" "symbol grounding"

Wednesday, December 08, 2004

The Symbol Grounding Problem 

The Symbol Grounding Problem
Author: Stevan Harnad   Format: HTML   Date: 1990
"ABSTRACT: There has been much discussion recently about the scope and limits of purely symbolic models of the mind and about the proper role of connectionism in cognitive modeling. This paper describes the 'symbol grounding problem': How can the semantic interpretation of a formal symbol system be made intrinsic to the system, rather than just parasitic on the meanings in our heads? How can the meanings of the meaningless symbol tokens, manipulated solely on the basis of their (arbitrary) shapes, be grounded in anything but other meaningless symbols? The problem is analogous to trying to learn Chinese from a Chinese/Chinese dictionary alone. A candidate solution is sketched: Symbolic representations must be grounded bottom-up in nonsymbolic representations of two kinds: (1) 'iconic representations' , which are analogs of the proximal sensory projections of distal objects and events, and (2) 'categorical representations' , which are learned and innate feature-detectors that pick out the invariant features of object and event categories from their sensory projections. Elementary symbols are the names of these object and event categories, assigned on the basis of their (nonsymbolic) categorical representations. Higher-order (3) 'symbolic representations' , grounded in these elementary symbols, consist of symbol strings describing category membership relations (e.g., 'An X is a Y that is Z'). Connectionism is one natural candidate for the mechanism that learns the invariant features underlying categorical representations, thereby connecting names to the proximal projections of the distal objects they stand for. In this way connectionism can be seen as a complementary component in a hybrid nonsymbolic/symbolic model of the mind, rather than a rival to purely symbolic modelin"

Google Search: "symbol grounding" 

Google Search: "symbol grounding"

SKOS-Core 1.0 Guide 

SKOS-Core 1.0 Guide: "SKOS stands for Simple Knowledge Organisation Systems. SKOS-Core is intended as a complement to OWL. It does provide a basic framework for building concept schemes, but it does not carry the strictly defined semantics of OWL. Thus it is ideal for representing those types of KOS, such as thesauri, that connot be mapped directly to an OWL ontology. SKOS is also easier to use, and harder to misuse than OWL, providing an ideal entry point for those wishing to use the Semantic Web for knowledge organisation.
SKOS-Core also provides a framework for linking concepts to the words and phrases that are normally used by people to refer to them. This valuable information, once captured, can be used to support a number of tasks, such as automated classification of web documents, and automated multilingual translation of glossaries."

Tuesday, December 07, 2004

ConceptNet 

ConceptNet

YAML Ain't Markup Language (YAML) 1.0 

YAML Ain't Markup Language (YAML) 1.0

Learning Visually Grounded Words and Syntax of Natural Spoken Language 

Learning Visually Grounded Words and Syntax of Natural Spoken Language
Author:Deb Roy    Format:PDF    Date:2002-01-15
"Abstract
Properties of the physical world have shaped human evolutionary design and given rise to physically grounded mental representations. These grounded representations provide the foundation for higher level cognitive processes including language. Most natural language processing machines to date lack grounding. This paper advocates the creation of physically grounded language learning machines as a path toward scalable systems which can conceptualize and communicate about the world in human-like ways. As steps in this direction, two experimental language acquisition systems are presented. The first system, CELL, is able to learn acoustic word forms and associated shape and color categories from fluent untranscribed speech paired with video camera images. In evaluations, CELL has successfully learned from spontaneous infant-directed speech. A version of CELL has been implemented in a robotic embodiment which can verbally interact with human partners. The second system, DESCRIBER, acquires a visually-grounded model of natural language which it uses to generate spoken descriptions of objects in visual scenes. Input to DESCRIBER’s learning algorithm consists of computer generated scenes paired with natural language descriptions produced by a human teacher. DESCRIBER learns a three-level language model which encodes syntactic and semantic properties of phrases, word classes, and words. The system learns from a simple ‘show-and-tell’ procedure, and once trained, is able to generate semantically appropriate, contextualized, and syntactically well-formed descriptions of objects in novel scenes."

Emergent Semantics 

Emergent Semantics is a small publication of the IEEE consisting of several articles edited by Steffen Staab including one by Luc Steels.

Description Logics: Reasoning Support for the Semantic Web 

Jeff Z. Pan - Ph.D. Thesis

Monday, December 06, 2004

Open Source Software in Java(tm) 

Open Source Software in Java(tm)

Alphachimp Studio, Inc.: "Make stuff. Make stuff happen." 

Alphachimp Studio, Inc.: "Make stuff. Make stuff happen."
""You talk. We draw. The pictures tell the story."(tm)
Graphic Facilitation uses visual learning as a powerful tool for critical thinking, problem solving & strategic planning."

This method reminds me of Mind Maps.

Sxip.org - Sxip Overview 

Sxip.org - Sxip Overview: "Sxip Overview
The Sxip Network is a simple, secure and open platform for true digital identity. Sites that implement Sxip support are able to easily provide features like single sign-on and automatic form fill.

Sxip users gain control over their online identity, conveniently and safely navigating Sxip-enabled sites.

Website developers implementing Sxip benefit by being able to share a platform built on open standards and supported by open source tools. "

OSCAR : Open Source Cluster Application Resources 

OSCAR : Open Source Cluster Application Resources: "OSCAR version 3.0 is a snapshot of the best known methods for building, programming, and using clusters. It consists of a fully integrated and easy to install software bundle designed for high performance cluster computing. Everything needed to install, build, maintain, and use a modest sized Linux cluster is included in the suite, making it unnecessary to download or even install any individual software packages on your cluster. "

DBLP Computer Science Bibliography 

DBLP Computer Science Bibliography: "The DBLP server provides bibliographic information on major computer science journals and proceedings. Initially the server was focused on DataBase systems and Logic Programming (DBLP), now it is gradually being expanded toward other fields of computer science. You may now read 'DBLP' as 'Digital Bibliography & Library Project'.
The server indexes more than 500000 articles and contains several thousand links to home pages of computer scientists (May 2004). "

Library 

Library: "DBLP, the 'Digital Bibliography & Library Project' provides bibliographic information on major computer science journals and proceedings. The data set contains descriptions about more than 500000 articles (May 2004) with information about authors, title, and citiation references, among others. "

identity commons: Welcome to Identity Commons 

identity commons: Welcome to Identity Commons
What if...

At Identity Commons, we're striving to make this possible by creating the framework for trusted electronic communications. These tools will make your communications simple and convenient, secure yet verifiable. Individuals will be able to decide just how persistent, portable and private their online identity is, relationship by relationship; organizations that support this form of communication will derive greater value from their customer/member relationships while enhancing their reputation with customers. Serving as the backbone for this new technology are data sharing agreements that establish the parameters for the exchange and use of personal information between users.
"

White Paper - Building High Performance Linux Clusters 

White Paper - Building High Performance Linux Clusters

LinuxHPC.org - Linux High Performance Computing & Linux Clusters 

LinuxHPC.org - Linux High Performance Computing & Linux Clusters
"Linux High Performance Technical Computing, Linux High Availability and Linux Clustering"

Sunday, December 05, 2004

Sxip Networks - Home Page 

Sxip Networks - Home Page
"Sxip Networks: Reinventing Digital Identity
[ Sxip gives Net users true digital identity. ]
What does this mean for you? What does this mean for websites?
Login to a website in seconds versus minutes
Create multiple identities ("personas")
Control both the security and type of personal data (your "attributes") when logging into a website
You decide a safe location ("Homesite") to store your personal data
Ability to comply with privacy legislation
Deeper customer relationships
Easily provide features like single sign-on and automatic form fill
Open and extensible schema"

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