Friday, December 17, 2004

The Drive for a Globally Certified Enterprise Architect 

EACommunity Articles: "META Trend: By 2006, 20% of Global 2000 organizations will integrate holistic enterprise architecture, enterprise program management, enterprise strategy/planning, and IT portfolio management into a common set of IT management processes under the auspices of the CIO's office. Ten percent will operate these integrated management disciplines outside the IT organization."

NG4J - Named Graphs API for Jena 

NG4J - Named Graphs API for Jena: "The Named Graphs API for Jena (NG4J) is an extension to the Jena Semantic Web framework for parsing, manipulating and serializing sets of Named Graphs.
NG4J V0.3 extends Jena with:
- graph-centric methods for manipulating sets of Named Graphs
- quad-centric methods for manipulating sets of Named Graphs
- viewing graphsets as Jena models and Jena graphs
- provenance-enabled Jena statements
- querying of Named Graphs with the TriQL query language
- integrated parser and serializer for the TriX syntax including XSLT syntactic extensions
- integrated parser and serializer for the TriG syntax
- in-memory or database-persisted graphset storage
- directory reader for importing existing RDF files.
- directory writer for serializing graph sets a classic RDF files.
NG4J is an exerimental implementation of the new syntaxes (TriX, TriG) and query language (TriQL) developed within the Semantic Web Interest Group. "

Food Informatics 

Food Informatics: "UnitDim: an ontology of physical units and quantities
In favour of the VL-e project and Food Informatics we have constructed an ontology of physical units and quantities, called UnitDim, that might be helpful in interacting between models and data. In our work within the project we have run into the absence of an existing proper formal, digital representation of physical units and related concepts. We do not claim completeness, but we believe that UnitDim presently covers most scientific and engineering application domains. The ontology, implemented in OWL DL, is quite comprehensive and considers about 200 quantities and 300 units. The concepts of dimensions, systems of units and application domains are also covered in UnitDim.
We are very much willing to submit our ontology for further review. In order to download UnitDim, click here: UnitDim.owl. For a descriptive document about the ontology, click here: UnitDim.pdf"

The Role of RSS in Science Publishing: Syndication and Annotation on the Web 

The Role of RSS in Science Publishing: Syndication and Annotation on the Web
"RSS is one of a new breed of technologies that is contributing to the ever-expanding dominance of the Web as the pre-eminent, global information medium. It is intimately connected with—though not bound to—social environments such as blogs and wikis, annotation tools such as [1], Flickr [2] and Furl [3], and more recent hybrid utilities such as JotSpot [4], which are reshaping and redefining our view of the Web that has been built up and sustained over the last 10 years and more [n1]. Indeed, Tim Berners-Lee's original conception of the Web [5] was much more of a shared collaboratory than the flat, read-only kaleidoscope that has subsequently emerged: a consumer wonderland, rather than a common cooperative workspace. Where did it all go wrong?

These new 'disruptive' technologies [n2] are now beginning to challenge the orthodoxy of the traditional website and its primacy in users' minds. The bastion of online publishing is under threat as never before. RSS is the very antithesis of the website. It is not a 'home page' for visitors to call at, but rather it provides a synopsis, or snapshot, of the current state of a website with simple titles and links. While titles and links are the joints that articulate an RSS feed, they can be freely embellished with textual descriptions and richer metadata annotations. Thus said, RSS usually functions as a signal of change on a distant website, but it can more generally be interpreted as a kind of network connector—or glue technology—between disparate applications. Syndication and annotation are the order of the day and are beginning to herald a new immediacy in communications and information provision. This paper describes the growing uptake of RSS within science publishing as seen from Nature Publishing Group's (NPG) [6] perspective."

About PubSub 

About PubSub: "PubSub is a matching service that instantly notifies you when new content is created that matches your subscription. Using a proprietary Matching Engine, PubSub is able to read millions of data sources on your behalf and notify you instantly whenever a match is made.
The heart of the PubSub service is a powerful, proprietary Matching Engine that makes it possible, for the first time, to match millions of search queries against thousands of new pieces of information every second." "- is a social bookmarks manager. It allows you to easily add sites you like to your personal collection of links, to categorize those sites with keywords, and to share your collection not only between your own browsers and machines, but also with others.
- Once you've registered for the service, you add a simple bookmarklet to your browser. When you find a web page you'd like to add to your list, you simply select the bookmarklet, and you'll be prompted for a information about the page. You can add descriptive terms to group similar links together, modify the title of the page, and add extended notes for yourself or for others.
- You can access your list of links from any web browser. By default, your links are shown to you in reverse chronological order, with those you've added most recently at the top. In addition to viewing by date, you can also view all links in a specific category (you define your own categories as you add the links), or search your links for keywords.
- What makes a social system is its ability to let you see the links that others have collected, as well as showing you who else has bookmarked a specific site. You can also view the links collected by others, and subscribe to the links of people whose lists you find interesting."

About Flickr 

About Flickr: "Flickr - almost certainly the best online photo management and sharing application in the world - has two main goals:
1. We want to help people make their photos available to the people who matter to them.
Maybe they want to keep a blog of moments captured on their cameraphone, or maybe they want to show off their best pictures to the whole world in a bid for web celebrity. Or maybe they want to securely and privately share photos of their kids with their family across the country. Flickr makes all these things possible and more!
To do this, we want to get photos into and out of the system in as many ways as we can: from the web, from mobile devices, from the users' home computers and from whatever software they are using to manage their photos. And we want to be able to push them out in as many ways as possible: on the Flickr website, in RSS feeds, by email, by posting to outside blogs or ways we haven't thought of yet. What else are we going to use those smart refrigerators for?
Flickr is the WD-40 that makes it easy to get photos from one person to another in whatever way they want.
2. We want to enable new ways of organizing photos.
Once you make the switch to digital, it is all too easy to get overwhelmed with the sheer number of photos you take with that itchy trigger finger. Albums, the principal way people go about organizing photos today, are great -- until you get to 20 or 30 or 50 of them. They worked in the days of getting rolls of film developed, but the 'album' metaphor is in desperate need of a Florida condo and full retirement.
Part of the solution is to make the process of organizing photos collaborative. In Flickr, you can give your friends, family, and other contacts permission to organize your photos - not just to add comments, but also notes and tags. People like to ooh and ahh, laugh and cry, make wisecrack"

LookSmart's Furl - About Furl 

LookSmart's Furl - About Furl: "About Furl...
Furl is a free service that saves the important items you find on the Web and enables you to quickly find them again. Furl archives a personal copy of every page you save. When you want to recall it, you can find it instantly by searching the full text your archived items. Each member has a personal archive of 5 gigabytes (GB), large enough to store tens of thousands of searchable items.
Furl recommends new Web pages that may interest you, guided by the sites you've already 'Furled,' or saved.
Furl also offers the best ways to share the content you find on the Web. Send a daily email newsletter of links to friends and colleagues, use Furl to generate RSS feeds for your links, or integrate them quickly and easily into an existing Web site.
Furl was founded in the spring of 2003 by Mike Giles, and is part of the LookSmart family. For more information, please see LookSmart's About Us. "

Thursday, December 16, 2004

SIMILE Project 

SIMILE Project
"SIMILE is a joint project conducted by the W3C, HP, MIT Libraries, and MIT CSAIL. SIMILE seeks to enhance inter-operability among digital assets, schemata/vocabularies/ontologies, metadata, and services. A key challenge is that the collections which must inter-operate are often distributed across individual, community, and institutional stores. We seek to be able to provide end-user services by drawing upon the assets, schemata/vocabularies/ontologies, and metadata held in such stores.

SIMILE will leverage and extend DSpace, enhancing its support for arbitrary schemata and metadata, primarily though the application of RDF and semantic web techniques. The project also aims to implement a digital asset dissemination architecture based upon web standards. The dissemination architecture will provide a mechanism to add useful "views" to a particular digital artifact (i.e. asset, schema, or metadata instance), and bind those views to consuming services.

To guide the SIMILE effort we will focus on well-defined, real-world use cases in the libraries domain. Since parallel work is underway to deploy DSpace at a number of leading research libraries, we hope that such an approach will lead to a powerful deployment channel through which the utility and readiness of semantic web tools and techniques can be compellingly demonstrated in a visible and global community.

The SIMILE Project and its members are fully committed to the open source principles of software distribution and open development and for this reason, it releases the created intellectual property (both software and reports) under a BSD-style license."

Wednesday, December 15, 2004

Information Flow Framework (IFF) 

Information Flow Framework (IFF): "The Information Flow Framework (IFF) is an effort to develop Information Flow: the logic of distributed systems. The Information Flow Framework celebrates the notion of a community. The standards of a community, encoded in the types and constraints of that community�s ontology, represent consensual agreement within the community. The global standards of a collection of cooperating communities, encoded in the types and constraints of a common generic extensible ontology, represent the consensual agreement across communities � a standard semantics. Community ontologies, the links between such ontologies, and the resulting virtual fusion ontologies, can all be represented with the Information Flow Framework."

Signs, Processes, and Language Games - Foundations for Ontology  

Signs, Processes, and Language Games - Foundations for Ontology
Author: John F. Sowa   Date: 2001-2004   Format: HTML
"Before attempting a new synthesis, it is important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the Aristotelian achievement and the lessons that can be learned from it. What, if anything, can be salvaged from it? What philosophical foundations might be better able to accommodate the breakthroughs in modern science, logic, linguistics, and computer science? What semantic foundations could support the highly technical languages of science, the colloquial speech of everyday life, and the problems of finding, sharing, and reasoning with knowledge scattered among millions of computers across the Internet? Should Kant's achievements be considered an encouraging step toward a new synthesis or a discouraging dead end?
Those questions were raised and answered by Peirce, Whitehead, and Wittgenstein - three logicians who understood the limitations of logic when applied to the problems of language and life. What set them apart from their contemporaries was their willingness to build the foundations of their philosophies on the recognition that logic, although important, is limited in what it can do. Section 2 of this paper reviews the difficulties encountered by the 20th-century analytic philosophers who either failed to recognize the limitations of logic or tried to bury their doubts under many layers of formalism. Section 3 analyzes the efforts in artificial intelligence to design logical systems that can cope with the limitations of logic. Sections 4, 5, and 6 show how Peirce, Whitehead, and Wittgenstein developed methods for accommodating the limitations, not eliminating them. Finally, Section 7 outlines the proposed new foundations: Whitehead's process philosophy as a theory of the flux, Peirce's semiotics as a theory of the logos, and Wittgenstein's language games as a theory of semantic change and adaptability."

The Limits of Conceptualization 

Re: SUO: OpenCyc Motion Open for Discussions: "The major concern I have been repeating many times is that no single, monolithic ontology can ever be adequate for everything. No matter how big it may be, there will always be different perspectives, contexts, aspects, applications, etc., for which the given set of definitions and axioms is inappropriate, inadequate, or incomplete."

Tuesday, December 14, 2004

The Role of Semiotics in the Study of Language, Linguistics and Communication: An Overview 

The Role of Semiotics in the Study of Language, Linguistics and Communication: An Overview
Author:Edna Andrews   Format:PDF
"Abstract. The importance of semiotics to the study of language and linguistic theory in the twentieth century has been profound. In order to begin to grasp the scope of importance of this complex and multifaceted paradigm, one has to consider a wide range of sources, the most important of which include the works of Ferdinand de Saussure, Charles Sanders Peirce, the Prague School, Roman Jakobson, Thomas Sebeok, the Moscow/Tartu School, Yuri Lotman, Jakob von Uexküll, René Thom, and a significant group of American-based Slavic linguists, including many of Jakobson’s former students (van Schooneveld, Stankiewicz, Andersen, Shapiro, to name a few) and a second and third generation of Slavic linguists as well. Because it would be impossible to do justice to such a broad range of works in one paper, we might instead focus on some of the more powerful aspects of the influence of semiotic theory on l inguistic theory and the study of language. The following discussion will consider in brief the contributions of Peirce, Jakobson, Sebeok, Lotman, von Uexküll and Thom to the study of language."

XMLHttpRequest for The Masses 

all in the <head>: "With the advent of Google Suggest it seems that the industry has deemed that client-side XML HTTP is ready for the prime time. The technology is nothing new, of course, and has been part of every server-side developer's standard toolkit for years, but whilst some browsers have maintained support for XML HTTP for a few years, it's only recently that support has been widespread enough to utilise.

Interestingly enough, the XMLHttpRequest is not part of any public standard. The W3C DOM Level 3 'Load and Save' spec covers similar ground, but you know how long these things take to get implemented. At the time of writing, if you need to use XML HTTP from a user agent, then the XMLHttpRequest object is the only way you can do it. "

3.1 A Quick Start with the Publisher Handler 

3.1 A Quick Start with the Publisher Handler

Mod_python - Apache/Python Integration 

Mod_python - Apache/Python Integration

MoinMoinRelease1.3 - MoinMoin 

MoinMoinRelease1.3 - MoinMoin

Google Search: "C.S. Peirce" perception conceptual analysis 

Google Search: "C.S. Peirce" perception conceptual analysis

Logic, Neuroscience and Phenomenology: In Cahoots? 

Logic, Neuroscience and Phenomenology: In Cahoots?
Author: Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen   Date: 2004   Format: PDF
"Abstract. Cognitive sciences, including cognitive neurosciences, have provided important insights into the notionsof awareness, implicit/explicit information processing in knowledge, perception, object identification and memory, as well as general information retrieval. Meanwhile, propositional-attitude logics have tried to account for awareness in terms of symbolic tools, but have not found pathways in which to relate the two fields. It is argued that empirical findings concerning rare neural dysfunctions (blindsight, unilateral neglect, prosopagnosia, implicit memory) may contribute to these logical investigations. On the other hand, the early phase on cognitive science, the origins of which coincide with that of pragmatist philosophy, shared intimate roots with phenomenology. Accordingly, I will identify some strands in that early period that have surfaced in logic, AI and computer science. In phenomenology, the significance of the division between implicit and explicit aspects of knowledge in understanding cognition was acknowledged very early on."

Monday, December 13, 2004


HomePage - Kwiki: " FotoNotes is a standardized approach to embedding stories, thoughts, and other cool information in digital photos. "

An Introduction to Purple 

An Introduction to Purple: "Purple is a small suite of quickly hacked tools inspired by Doug Engelbart's attempt to bootstrap the addressing features of his Augment system onto HTML pages. Its purpose is simple: produce HTML documents that can be addressed at the paragraph level. It does this by automatically creating name anchors with static and hierarchical addresses at the beginning of each text node, and by displaying these addresses as links at the end of each text node. 1A (02)
Purple consists of an XML DTD, an XSLT script for transforming the XML into HTML, various Perl scripts for preprocessing the XML, and a CGI script for displaying different versions of an HTML file. Its name was inspired by the little purple numbers found at the Bootstrap Institute's web site. 1B (03)
Purple is a makeshift solution to a relatively simple problem, and will hopefully be rendered obsolete very quickly by preliminary versions of Doug Engelbart's Open Hyperdocument System (OHS). 1C (04) "

Shirky to Talk on the Rise and Fall of Ontology 

O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference 2005: "This talk begins by exploring the rise of ontological classification. In the period after the invention of the printing press but before the invention of the search engine, intellectual production was vested in books, objects that were numerous but opaque. When you have more than a few hundred books, categorization becomes a forced move, even if the categories are somewhat arbitrary, because without categories, you can no longer locate individual books.
It will relate this 'opaque objects' problem to the more recent history of organizing pure data--a hierarchical file-system; then the emergence of 'symbolic' links, which undermined the hierarchy but left intact the idea that data 'was' somewhere, and that all other pointers were second-class; to our current system, where the URL makes all links equally symbolic.
The URL represents the inversion of the traditional scale, making the mere label and not the mighty ontology the key site of organizational value. The talk will go on to describe the tension between productive and extractive modes of metadata, and the effects of scale, heterogenous user assumptions, na�ve and flat classifications, lowered barriers to production and tagging, and long-lived classifications by individuals. These are all things that are inimical to ontology but predictive of extractive organizational value, in the manner of Google.
The talk ends by discussing key technologies in the spread of extractive value--Google,, fotonotes, purple numbers, RDF--and wrapping up with some predictions about where value might be encapsulated in user-tagged, semi-structured data in the future."



Loosely coupled invention 

Loosely Coupled weblog - on-demand web services#85266919: "To glimpse the awesome potential of loosely coupled systems, take a look at BookWatch Plus. Thousands of discrete web sites and services interact to make BookWatch Plus possible, and yet none of them were designed with the intention of creating it. "

intelligent agents and bots - AgentLand 

intelligent agents and bots - AgentLand: "AgentLand is a totally new world: the first site entirely dedicated to intelligent agents and virtual assistants."

Google Search: 

Google Search:

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) 

About ACO: "Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) studies artificial systems that take inspiration from the behavior of real ant colonies and which are used to solve discrete optimization problems. In 1999, the Ant Colony Optimization metaheuristic was defined by Dorigo, Di Caro and Gambardella (see papers on the ACO metaheuristic). "

About RedfishGroup 

About RedfishGroup: "RedfishGroup is a loosely-coupled organization of complexity researchers, software developers and business professionals applying the emerging science of Complex Adaptive Systems to difficult problems in business and government. RedfishGroup was founded in 1991 by Stephen Guerin and is currently based in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
We continually seek opportunities to work with other like-minded researchers and developers." "This site contains pointers to information about multiagent systems, including both research and industrial references. The front page also has breaking news of some relevance. Please email me (announce at multiagent dot com) any news you want to include here.
This whole site is generated from my bookmarks using a small program called bk2site. You can dowload the bookmark file that was used to generate this site. The source code for bk2site is available. I am trying to encourage others to set up their own sites. The dream of the Internet was for all to have an equal voice, not for a few 'portals' to tell everyone what they should read."

Google Search: "swarm intelligence" ants "web services" 

Google Search: "swarm intelligence" ants "web services" - KnowNow's Internet publish-subscribe delivers secure, event-driven data through firewalls, over HTTP. - KnowNow's Internet publish-subscribe delivers secure, event-driven data through firewalls, over HTTP.: "Portals and email are not the panacea for corporate communications that they were promised to be. Email is plagued by spam. Neither solution addresses the need for real-time, event-driven communication between employees, partners and customers. Each puts a significant burden on users to manually filter vast amounts of information in order to determine what is relevant to them. Integration of portals with existing corporate systems is difficult and costly. Additionally, these solutions do not satisfy the increasingly stringent regulatory requirements regarding the timelines, accuracy and accountability surrounding financial transactions and reporting.
The solution is in the merging of lightweight event-driven integration solutions with Real Simple Syndication (RSS). "

Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Load and Save Specification 

Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Load and Save Specification: "Abstract
This specification defines the Document Object Model Load and Save Level 3, a platform- and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically load the content of an XML document into a DOM document and serialize a DOM document into an XML document; DOM documents being defined in [DOM Level 2 Core] or newer, and XML documents being defined in [XML 1.0] or newer. It also allows filtering of content at load time and at serialization time. "

A Visual Concept Ontology for Automatic Image Recognition 

A Visual Concept Ontology for Automatic Image Recognition
Authors: Nicolas Maillot, Monique Thonnat and Alain Boucher   Date: 2004   Format: PDF
"Multimedia content understanding is expected to play an important role in the future of the Semantic Web. For instance, many image retrieval engines are currently under development. Many of the systems limit their recognition mechanism to low-level image descriptors which are far from semantic notions. On the other hand, other types of system only rely on human annotations [Von-Wun et al., 2002]. We propose an intermediate approach to image understanding. Our approach stems from the fact that experts (e.g. biological and medical experts) of a specific domain often use and share a generic visual vocabulary to describe objects of interest. This paper introduces a domain-independent visual concept ontology which is used as a guide for describing the objects of a domain of expertise. This ontology driven description is planned to support automatic recognition based on image processing techniques."

Object Recognition for Semantic Image Indexing 

Object Recognition for Semantic Image Indexing
Authors: Nicolas MAILLOT and Monique THONNAT   Format: PDF(PPT)
- Goal: object recognition
-- find the semantic class of physical objects observed on images
- How:
-- Knowledge formalization : hierarchy of object classes described by visual concepts
-- Machine learning to match numerical features with semantic concepts
- Application:
-- Semantic image indexing and retrieval"

Google Search: "feature extraction" ontology 

Google Search: "feature extraction" ontology

A Comparative Study for Domain Ontology Guided Feature Extraction 

A Comparative Study for Domain Ontology Guided Feature Extraction
Authors: Bill B. Wang, R I. (Bob) McKay, Hussein A. Abbass, Michael Barlow   Date: 2003   Format: PDF
We introduced a novel method employing a hierarchical domain ontology structure to extract features representing documents in our previous publication (Wang 2002). All raw words in the training documents are mapped to concepts in a concept hierarchy derived from the domain ontology. Based on these concepts, a concept hierarchy is established for the training document space, using is-a relationships defined in the domain ontology. An optimum concept set may be obtained by searching the concept hierarchy with an appropriate heuristic function. This may be used as the feature space to represent the training dataset. The proposed method aims to solve some drawbacks suffered by text classification algorithms and feature selection algorithms. In this paper, we conducted a series of experiments to compare our approach with other comparable feature-selection and feature-extraction methods. The results indicated that our approach has advantages in many aspects.
Keywords: text classification, ontology, concept hierarchy,
principal component analysis, KNN algorithm, information
gain IX2"

Dynamic HTML and XML: The XMLHttpRequest Object 

Dynamic HTML and XML: The XMLHttpRequest Object: "As deployment of XML data and web services becomes more widespread, you may occasionally find it convenient to connect an HTML presentation directly to XML data for interim updates without reloading the page. Thanks to the little-known XMLHttpRequest object, an increasing range of web clients can retrieve and submit XML data directly, all in the background. To convert retrieved XML data into renderable HTML content, rely on the client-side Document Object Model (DOM) to read the XML document node tree and compose HTML elements that the user sees."

The Fishbowl: The New Web UI 

The Fishbowl: The New Web UI: "The first prominent use of XmlHttpRequest that I encountered (in my admittedly limited range of web browsing) was in the once exclusive but now culturally irrelevant Google social side project, Orkut. After this experiment, though, the technique really fell into place with GMail.
If you are a web developer, even if you don�t need any more mail space, get a GMail account now. In one blow, Google�s engineers massively raised the bar on what we should accept from a webapp. Here�s a highly regarded, mainstream application that is responsive, with a dynamic UI and even comprehensive keyboard navigation, but that still feels like a web application."

Playing with Taxonomies 

Playing with Taxonomies - " we want to tag our own content in our own way and resist mightily any group imposing its views on our content. That's the problem with taxonomies. All politics is local, and the same holds true for many taxonomies, at least when they attempt to capture deep-seated ways of looking at information close by. "

ROR - Resources of a Resource 

ROR - Resources of a Resource: "ROR is a simple flexible XML and RDF/XML vocabulary for describing the resources of a resource (a website, a blog, a list of things, a tree structure, etc).

The idea behind ROR is to descscribe resources by decomposing them into ever smaller resources that can be described more fully and precisely, making it easier for web agent or applications (e.g. search engine spiders, etc) to make sense of the information."

Sunday, December 12, 2004

Google Search: "explicit meaning transfer" 

Google Search: "explicit meaning transfer"

Alexa Web Search...Philosophy > Philosophy of Language > Meaning 

Alexa Web Search - Subjects > Society > ... > Philosophy > Philosophy of Language > Meaning

Google Search: Quine "Indeterminacy of meaning' 

Google Search: Quine "Indeterminacy of meaning'

O'Reilly Network: MP3 Sound Bites 

O'Reilly Network: MP3 Sound Bites: "Although the amount of audio content keeps growing, the time available for listening remains constant. Until and unless we achieve a radical breakthrough in speech-to-text translation--and I'm not holding my breath--we'll need to find another way to make audio content more granular, and easier to consume selectively. In the realm of hypertext we do this by quoting passages--that is, lifting fragments out of texts that we read, and placing them (with attribution) into texts that we write. Hypertext pioneer Ted Nelson wanted things to work differently. He wanted us to include (his word: transclude) passages, not copy them. But Nelson's vision of Xanadu never materialized. XLink and XPointer, the key standards designed to support transclusion, remain obscure. What we've actually got are whole-document URLs plus a few strategies for subdocument addressing. The common one is destination anchors--blog permalinks, for example--that mark locations within documents. Less common, and requiring active server participation, are annotation systems that work with arbitrary byte ranges. "

IT Conversations: The Gillmor Gang - December 10, 2004 

IT Conversations: The Gillmor Gang - December 10, 2004

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