Saturday, April 30, 2005

What is Digital Identity? 

"What is Digital Identity?

A Digital Identity is the representation of a human identity that is used in a distributed network interaction with other machines or people. The purpose of the Digital Identity is to restore the ease and security human transactions once had, when we all knew each other and did business face-to-face, to a machine environment where we are often meeting each other for the first time as we enter into transactions over vast distances.

Attributes of a Digital Identity

A Digital Identity only needs to be as complete as a particular transaction requires. That is to say, some transactions require a far more robust Digital Identity than others, since the degree of trust and information required can vary significantly based on the type of transaction. A Digital Identity consists of two parts:

Who one is (identity)
The credentials that one holds (attributes of that identity).

These credentials define a Digital Identity, and they can be quite varied, of widely differing value, and have many different uses. The full Digital Identity is quite intricate and has legal as well as technical implications (here is a MIT white paper on the subject that will give you the idea.) However, the simplest possible Digital Identity consists of an ID (such as a user name) and an authentication secret (such as a password).

In this simplest Digital Identity the user name is the identity while the password is said to be the authentication credential. As computerized systems become more networked and distributed, Digital Identity must become more robust to make complex distributed user interactions easy while achieving the required control and security. Ultimately Digital Identity will become as complex and flexible in use as a real-world human identity."

Harry Halpin on httpRange-14 

httpRange-14 notes:: "What do URIs identify?
In essence, one reason Web works because using a web protocol like http(Hypertext Transfer Protocol), one can from a client send a request to a server to do an operation such as HTTP GET for a given URI and dereference something, often a web-page. However, this very basic feature of the Web is bedeviled by a question: 'What is the range of the HTTP dereference function?' In other words, what do URIs identify? In theory this question has been solved by the W3C TAG's AWWW: URIs refer to anything. Upon inspection, the official definition is actually circular: 'We do not limit the scope of what might be a resource...it is used in a general sense for whatever might be identified by a URI.' The question then arises that if a resource is just anything that could theoretically be with a identified URI, is there anything that can not be identified? It would seem not. This view is given by the AWWW as 'our use of the term resource is intentionally more broad. Other things, such as cars and dogs ... are resources too.' However, referring to a web-page and the car in my garage are similar acts, but they are not exactly the same. The essential difference is this: in the first case on the Web we have physical, connected, access to the Web-page, while in the second case if we are using the Semantic Web to refer to my car, we only the ability to refer to my car by a URI name, and this has no direct, connected, or physical access. When one uses a URI as a name there is a disconnect, as the thing named may not be on the Web.
The division between representation and resource existed but was not explicitly stated, and definitely not noticed by, most of the users of the original hypertext Web. URLs seem to be originally meant to identify the location of representations, such as HTML web-pages"

What do HTTP URIs Identify? - Design Issues 

What do HTTP URIs Identify? - Design Issues: "Identify abstract things not documents
Let's take the alternatives in order. These alternatives all make sense. Each one, however, has problems I can't see any way around when we consider them as a basis as
The first was,
Every web page (or many of them) are in fact themselves representations of some abstract thing, and the URI really identifies that thing, not a document at all.
Well, that wasn't the model I had when URIs were invented and HTTP was written. However, let's see how it flies. If we stick with the principle that a URI (or URIref) must unambiguously identify the same thing in any context, then we come to the conclusion that URIs can not identify the web page. If a web page is about a car, then the URI can't be used to refer to the web page."

TAG Issues List 

TAG Issues List: "TBL's argument the HTTP URIs (without '#') should be understood as referring to documents, not cars."

Friday, April 29, 2005

PEP 333 -- Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0 

PEP 333 -- Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0
"Abstract
This document specifies a proposed standard interface between web servers and Python web applications or frameworks, to promote web application portability across a variety of web servers."

42: Designing from the Outside In 

42: Designing from the Outside In
"Now we are getting to close to the point where thanks to the wsgi spec and Python Paste you can plug Leonardo, CherryPy and Quixote (etc) applications/frameworks together. So if you want a wiki to go with CherryPy use Leonardo.

But please don't force any of this. Let me switch between any WSGI wiki, any WSGI framework, any templating tool, any database layer - make them all interoperate via the wsgi standard and Python Paste glue.

Then we can write applications and application builders that keep the options open.

This is exciting. Python is heading for a place that could leave others in its dust. The great thing is the momentum that is already building and which can only increase."

Thursday, April 28, 2005

The Network Imperative :: Digital Identity World :: Digital Identity, Digital ID 

The Network Imperative :: Digital Identity World :: Digital Identity, Digital ID: "Networking computers has unleashed a process that will relentlessly proceed, for however long it takes, through whatever intermediate steps we try to call end points, until it has succeeded in integrating everything with everything else. This trend has many huge implications, some of which are starting to be seen, all of which will eventually be felt, because the trend is unstoppable."

Wednesday, April 27, 2005

Base Technology | The Nature of Identity 

Base Technology | The Nature of Identity: "This proposal is in the public domain. It may be copied and modified -- provided that Jack Krupansky and Base Technology are credited and a link back to this original proposal is provided AND these same use and distribution terms are carried along.
Interactions, whether in the real-world or in cyberspace, are based on the concept of identity. If you send a request to a remote computer, there has to be some mechanism for identifying the path back to you. In some cases your real-world identity is needed for some interactions, but in many cases a very abbreviated 'user id' is sufficient identity to complete an interaction. People are concerned with privacy, so they do not want their full identity used on every interaction. There is also the problem of so-called 'identity theft'. The goal is to enable more robust interactions in cyberspace, that both respect privacy and minimize the chances of unauthentic access. Legitimate law enforcement access is considered a requirement. Ultimately, we're trying to achieve a higher level of security, without sacrificing privacy or usability."

Agtivity | In Pursuit of Software Agent Technology: The Nature of Identity 

Agtivity | In Pursuit of Software Agent Technology: The Nature of Identity

W3C Workshop on Rules Languages for Interoperability - Accepted Papers 

The Accepted Papers are available.

Chaitin, The Unknowable 

Gödel's incompleteness, Turing's uncomputability, Chaitin's randomness
"PREFACE
Having published four books on this subject, why a fifth?! Because there's something new: I compare and contrast Gödel's, Turing's and my work in a very simple and straight-forward manner using LISP.

Up to now I never wanted to examine Gödel's and Turing's work too closely—I wanted to develop my own viewpoint. But there is no longer any danger. So I set out to explain the mathematical essence of three very different ways to exhibit limits to mathematical reasoning: the way Gödel and Turing did it in the 1930s, and my way that I've been working on since the 1960s.

In a nutshell, Gödel discovered incompleteness, Turing discovered uncomputability, and I discovered randomness—that's the amazing fact that some mathematical statements are true for no reason, they're true by accident. There can be no ``theory of everything,'' at least not in mathematics. Maybe in physics!

I didn't want to write a ``journalistic'' book. I wanted to explain the fundamental mathematical ideas understandably. And I think that I've found a way to do it, and that I understand my predecessors' work better than I did before. The essence of this book is words, explaining mathematical ideas, but readers who feel so inclined can follow me all the way to LISP programs that pretty much show Gödel's, Turing's and my proofs working on the computer. And if you want to play with this software, you can download it from my web site.

This book is also a ``prequel'' to my Springer book The Limits of Mathematics. It's an easier introduction to my ideas, and uses the same version of LISP that I use in The Limits of Mathematics. I hope it'll be a stepping stone for those for whom The Limits of Mathematics is too intimidating.

"

Tuesday, April 26, 2005

SemText 

SemText: "Welcome to SemText!

Tuesday, 27 January 2004
Human languages allow you to express meaning in text for other humans to read. Semantic Web technologies let you express the meaning of data in a computer-readable form. SemText is a community-oriented project that aims to help bridge the gap. "

SemText 

SemText: "Last century's artificial intelligence might have had short life, but two of its children are alive and well in the nursery we call the web. One child is statistical and numeric, the numbers game of the Google search engine and Bayesian spam filtering. The other child is the Semantic Web of explicit resource description and first order logic. This presentation will begin with a classic compare and contrast of these children, but then show that the two are not mutually exclusive, and can play together. Services such as statistical indexing may be wrapped in interfaces that use the medium of RDF, and fuzzy relationships can be condensed into clear-cut RDF statements that can be used in relational database-style queries. There is a possible route to exploiting both latent and blatant semantics available in the form of the RDF model, and suggestions on how this may be implemented will be provided. "

FW: CFP: AWeSOMe'05 

-----Original Message-----
From: www-rdf-logic-request@w3.org
[mailto:www-rdf-logic-request@w3.org]On Behalf Of AWeSOMe05
Sent: Tuesday, April 26, 2005 7:23 AM
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Subject: Re: CFP: AWeSOMe'05

*****************************************************
The First International Workshop on

Agents, Web Services and Ontologies Merging (AWeSOMe'05)

http://www.cs.rmit.edu.au/fedconf/awesome2005cfp.html

In conjunction with OnTheMove Federated Conferences (OTM'05)

http://www.cs.rmit.edu.au/fedconf

Proceedings will be published by Springer Verlag
*****************************************************
Ayia Napa, Cyprus, 31 Oct - 4 Nov 2005
*****************************************************

Web services are a rapidly expanding approach to building distributed
software systems across networks such as the Internet. A Web service
is an operation typically addressed via a URI, declaratively described
using widely accepted standards, and accessed via platform-independent
XML-based messages.

Emerging ontologies are being used to construct semantically rich service
descriptions. Techniques for planning, composing, editing, reasoning and
analysing about these descriptions are being investigated and deployed to
resolve semantic interoperability between services within scalable, open
environments.

Agents and multi-agent systems can benefit from this combination, and can
be used for web service discovery, use and composition. In addition, web
services and multi-agent systems bear certain similarities, such as a
component-like behaviour, that can help to make their development much easier.

This workshop is intended for researchers working in this topic who want to
interact and exchange ideas with other participants.

Possible topics include, but are not limited to:

* Agent-based modelling and design techniques to address problems in
web service system development;
* Architectures and infrastructure for distributed agent- or service-
based frameworks;
* Architectures for supporting agents and web services within the semantic web;
* Infrastructure and architectures for M-services;
* Intelligent matchmaking and service brokering;
* Interoperability of web services;
* Multi-agent techniques to describing, organizing, and discovering
web services;
* Ontology or semantic-based approaches to describing and classifying
services and capabilities;
* Pricing and payment models for Web services;
* Process modeling for service/agent composition, orchestration and
coordination;
* Scaleable service composition for heterogeneous environments;
* Security support for agents and services, and agent-based approaches
to service security;
* Semantics for service delegation and knowledge aggregation;
* Semantics in Agent Communication Languages;
* Services and the semantic web, including initiatives such as OWL-S
(formerly DAML-S);
* Use of agent-based approaches for web service personalization;
* Use of context and conversations for Web services composition;
* Use of web service infrastructure and tools for building multi-agent systems.
* Web service agreements, legal contracts, and social commitments
between trading partners;

SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS

All submitted papers will be carefully evaluated based on originality,
significance, technical soundness, and clarity of expression. All
submissions must be in English. Submissions should be in PDF format
and must not exceed 10 pages in the final camera-ready format. Authors
instructions can be found at: http://www.springer.de/comp/lncs/authors.html..

The paper submission site is located at:

http://www.cs.rmit.edu.au/fedconf/awesome/2005/papers
Failure to commit to presentation at the conference automatically excludes
a paper from the proceedings.

IMPORTANT DATES

Abstract Submission Deadline June 24, 2005
Paper Submission Deadline June 24, 2005
Acceptance Notification July 29, 2005
Final Version Due August 20, 2005
Conference October 31 - November 4, 2005

ORGANISATION COMMITTEE

* Pilar Herrero
Facultad de Informática
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Campus de Montegancedo S/N
28660 Boadilla del Monte
Madrid (Spain)
Phone: (+34) 91.336.74.56
Fax: (+34) 91.336.65.95E
mail: pherrero@fi.upm.es

* David Martin
Artificial Intelligence Center
SRI International
333 Ravenswood Ave.
Menlo Park, CA 94025 (USA)
Phone: 650/859-4119
Email: martin@ai.sri.com

* Lawrence Cavedon
Center for the Study of Language and Information
Stanford University
210 Panama St
Stanford California 94305 (USA)
Phone: (+1) 650-725-2318
Email: lcavedon@csli.stanford.edu

* Gonzalo Méndez
Facultad de Informática
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
C/ Prof. José García Santesmases, s/n.
28040 Madrid (Spain)
Phone: (+34) 91.394.75.99
Email: gmendez@fdi.ucm.es

PROGRAM COMMITTEE

* Chris van Aart, Acklin B.V., The Netherlands
* Richard Benjamins, iSOCO, Spain
* Adam Cheyer, SRI International, USA
* Ian J. Dickinson, HP Labs, UK
* Tim Finin, University of Maryland, Baltimore
* Hamada H. Ghenniwa, University of Western Ontario, Canada
* Dominic Greenwood, Whitestein Technologies AG, Switzerland
* Mike Huhns, University of South Carolina, USA
* Margaret Lyell, The MITRE Corporation, USA
* W. Lewis Johnson, University of Southern California (USC), USA
* E. Michael Maximilien, IBM Almaden Research Center, USA
* Juan Pavón Mestras, Universidad Complutense Madrid, Spain
* Terry R. Payne, University of Southampton, UK
* José M. Peña, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
* María S. Pérez, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
* Debbie Richards, Macquarie University, Australia
* Víctor Robles, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
* Marta Sabou, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Holland
* Manuel Salvadores, Imbert Management Consulting Group, Spain
* Alberto Sánchez, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
* Jorge Gómez Sanz, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
* Paul Roe, Queensland University of Technology , Australia
* Leon Sterling, University of Melbourne, Australia
* Henry Tirri, Nokia Research Center(NRC), Finland
* Valentina Tamma, University of Liverpool, UK
* Santtu Toivonen, VTT Information Technology, Finland
* Julita Vassileva, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
* Steve Willmott, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain
* Ning Zhong, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Japan

--
AWeSOMe05 Organization


Sunday, April 24, 2005

:: Agents Portal :: Agent and Multi-agent Technology Resources 

:: Agents Portal :: Agent and Multi-agent Technology Resources: "Agents Protal (www.AgentsPortal.com) is a meeting point for people interested in Agents and Multi-Agent systems. We collect resources about this research and technolgy field for people looking for up-to-date information.

You can register, and contribute to this portal by feeding it with news, adding links, referring to tools, participating in the discussion forum or simply adding your name to the people database.

This site is an initiative from Sehl Mellouli PhD. student at Laval University and Houssein Ben-Ameur researcher at CIRANO and PhD. student at Montreal University. "

MultiAgent.com 

MultiAgent.com is a large list (resource collection) about Agents, Multi-agent systems, and related topics.

(Im)possibility of a Coordinated Attack 

(Im)possibility of a Coordinated Attack
"Abstract
Making use of epistemic logic it is provable that whenever the smallest uncertainty of message delivery is present, common knowledge via communication is impossible. This implies that a coordinated attack, which demands common knowledge, really can never take place. But there might be possibilities for a coordinated attack when you drop the demand of common knowledge and have a look at the probabilities of proper message delivery. A tentative start is made to develop a theory to explore this."

The Institute for Logic, Language and Computation 

The Institute for Logic, Language and Computation: "The Institute for Logic, Language and Computation (ILLC) is a research institute of the University of Amsterdam, in which researchers from the Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Humanities collaborate.
ILLC's central research area is the study of fundamental principles of encoding, transmission and comprehension of information. Emphasis is on natural and formal languages, but other information carriers, such as images and music, are studied as well.
Research at ILLC is interdisciplinary, and aims at bringing together insights from various disciplines concerned with information and information processing, such as logic, mathematics, computer science, linguistics, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and philosophy. "

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