Friday, May 06, 2005

Logical Systems: Towards Protocols for Web-Based Meaning Negotiation 

Logical Systems: Towards Protocols for Web-Based Meaning Negotiation
Our thesis is that before Web-based agents can negotiate meanings, they need to gree on high-level protocols based on logical systems. The Semantic Web community is setting the stage for semantic interoperability among Web-based software agents by developing standard languages with well-defined semantics. But exactly how these languages might be used to negotiate meanings is an open question. The agent- oriented perspective of negotiation as a kind of deal-making does not seem to mesh with the perspective of Semantic Web community, which seems more inclined to fix meanings, rather than bargain over them. Fundamental to treatments of meanings on the Semantic Web is the ability of agents to perform logical inferences; therefore, any approach to Web-based meaning negotiation should, take into account those aspects of logic that have a bearing on logical inferences. Logical systems provide a general way of accounting for those aspects of an agent’s logical setup that have a bearing on inferences. An explicit taking into account of agents’ logical systems provides a suitably rich foundation on which to base protocols for meaning negotiation on the Web."

Where are the Semantics in the Semantic Web? 

Where are the Semantics in the Semantic Web?
The most widely accepted defining feature of the Semantic Web is machine-usable content. By this definition, the Semantic Web is already manifest in shopping agents that automatically access and use Web content to find the lowest air fares, or book prices. But where are the semantics? Most people regard the Semantic Web as a vision, not a reality—so shopping agents should not “count”. To use Web content, machines need to know what to do when they encounter it. This in turn, requires the machine to “know” what the content means (i.e. its semantics). The challenge of developing the Semantic Web is how to put this knowledge into the machine. The manner in which this is done is at the heart of the confusion about the Semantic Web. The goal of this paper is to clear up some of this confusion.
We proceed by describing a variety of meanings of the term “semantics”, noting various things that can be said to have semantics of various kinds. We introduce a semantic continuum ranging from implicit semantics, which are only in the heads of the people who use the terms, to formal semantics for machine processing. We list some core requirements for enabling machines to use Web content, and we consider various issues such as hardwiring, agreements, clarity of semantics specifications, and public declarations of semantics. In light of these requirements and issues in conjunction with our semantic continuum, it is useful to collectively regard shopping agents as a degenerate case of the Semantic Web. Shopping agents work in the complete absence of any explicit account of the semantics of Web content because the meaning of the Web content that the agents are expected to encounter can be determined by the human programmers who hardwire it into the Web application software.
We note various shortcomings of this approach, which give rise to some ideas about how the Semantic Web should evolve. We argue that this evolution will take place by (1) moving along the semantic continuum from implicit semantics to formal semantics for machine processing, (2) reducing the amount of Web content semantics that is hardwired, (3) increasing the amount of agreements and standards, and (4) developing semantic mapping and translation capabilities where differences remain."

CSLI Center for the Study of Language and Information -- Stanford University 

CSLI Center for the Study of Language and Information -- Stanford University: "The Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) is an Independent Research Center founded in 1983 by researchers from Stanford University, SRI International, and Xerox PARC (now just PARC).
CSLI is devoted to research in the emerging science of information, computing, and cognition. This new science had its origins in the late 1970s as computer scientists, linguists, logicians, philosophers, psychologists, and artificial intelligence researchers, seeking solutions to problems in their own disciplines, turned to one another for help."

Ontology-Based Multi-Party Meeting Understanding 

Ontology-Based Multi-Party Meeting Understanding
"This paper describes current and planned research efforts towards developing multimodal discourse understanding for an automated personal office assistant. The research is undertaken as part of a project called The Cognitive Agent that Learns and Organizes (CALO) (see The CALO assistant is intended to aid users both personally and as a group in performing office-related tasks such as coordinating schedules, providing relevant information for completing tasks, making a record of meetings, and assisting in fulfilling decisions."

Ontology-Based Discourse Understanding for a Persistent Meeting Assistant 

Ontology-Based Discourse Understanding for a Persistent Meeting Assistant
In this paper, we present research toward ontology-based understanding of discourse in meetings and describe an ontology of multimodal discourse designed for this purpose. We investigate its application in an integrated but modular architecture which uses semantically annotated knowledge of communicative meeting activity as well as discourse subject matter. We highlight how this approach assists in improving system performance over time and supports understanding in a changing and persistent environment. We also describe current and future plans for ontology-driven robust naturallanguage understanding in the presence of the highly ambiguous and errorful input typical of the meeting domain."

WebHome < Public < CSLI Computational Semantics Lab 

WebHome < Public < CSLI Computational Semantics Lab: "We are a research group at the Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) at Stanford University, under the direction of Stanley Peters. We work on a number of projects which involve semantics -- the study of meaning -- at the intersection of linguistics and computer science.
A unifying theme in our research is an emphasis on the role of context in determining meaning. We are particularly interested in theoretical models of communication, language, dialogue, computation, and inference which take into account the context in which these activities are occurring.
We are also interested in applying research results to practical applications and real-world problems. Current or recent projects have been in the areas of information retrieval, natural language processing, dialogue systems, machine translation, programming languages, and cooperating software agents.
Current or recent software from various projects is available. "

Clusty // Clustering semantics agents 

Clusty // Clustering semantics agents

Wednesday, May 04, 2005

Memory mimic aids reading TRN 050405 

Memory mimic aids reading TRN 050405: "The researchers' work falls under a new class of human-computer interface research that aims to first understand user behavior in terms of a scientific theory, and then, using that theory, find ways to improve user interfaces, according to Chi. 'These types of research use back-end computation to model users [and use] the results to enhance user interaction,' he said. 'There is a strong theoretical validity to why it should work.' "

Teragram Corporation 

Teragram Corporation: "Teragram Corporation is the leading business software provider of fast and scalable language technologies: Categorization, Taxonomy Management, Entity Extraction, Spelling Correction, Indexing, and Crawling."

Tuesday, May 03, 2005

NetMesh: Light-Weight Digital Identity (LID) 

NetMesh: Light-Weight Digital Identity (LID)
"What is LID? A quite simple, but powerful technology that empowers individuals to keep control over and manage their digital identities.

LID is a mechanism for single sign-on (SSO).
LID makes vCards always up-to-date with better privacy
LID is a password management tool.
LID is a foundation for social networking.
NEW LID enables authenticated messaging and blog comments.
And there are many other uses."

Monday, May 02, 2005

You're It! - Blog Archive - Introduction: Clay Shirky 

You're It! - Blog Archive - Introduction: Clay Shirky
"Clay Shirky here. I’ve been writing about tagging since late 2003, when I first wrote about over on Many-to-Many (a group weblog about social software.) By way of introduction, here are excerpts from some of my M2M posts on the subject of tagging and folksonomy:..."

Many-to-Many: Tags != folksonomies && Tags != Flat name spaces 

Many-to-Many: Tags != folksonomies && Tags != Flat name spaces
"Tags are labels attached to things. This procedure is absolutely orthogonal to whether professionals or amateurs are doing the tagging.
Professionals often think tags are covalent with folksonomies because their minds have been poisoned by the false dream of ontology, but also because tagging looks too easy (in the same way the Web looked too easy to theoreticians of hypertext.) Not only are tags amenable to being used as controlled vocabularies, it's happening today, where groups are agreeing about how to tag things so as to produce streams of e.g. business research."

Conceptual Metaphor Home Page 

Conceptual Metaphor Home Page: "Welcome to the Conceptual Metaphor WWW server!
This server is a research tool for cognitive scientists and others interested in the study of conceptual metaphor systems. Ongoing work in the metaphor system of English and other languages is made available here using a hypertext format which allows the reader to trace links between metaphors and thus get a better idea of the structure of the system."

Sunday, May 01, 2005 - What is Structured Blogging? - What is Structured Blogging?: "Structured blogging is about making a movie review look different from a calendar entry. On the surface, it's as simple as that - formatting blog entries around their content.
To see what we're talking about, check out the sample content on the blog.
On another level, it's a bit more complicated - what we want to do is create structure (in the form of XML) around each of these types of entries, to organize the data inside and to let machine readers - other programs, sites, and aggregators - better understand the content." What Are Microformats? What Are Microformats?: "The phrase 'XML world' paints an apt word picture, for on top of a bedrock specification lives a thriving ecosystem, inhabited by complex layers of specifications, products, and personalities, both individually and in consortia. Like any ecosystem, XML world is subject to Darwinian natural selection and periodic adjustments. The best ideas tend to stick around.
The idea of microformats is particularly being explored of late. Previously, XML-Deviant discussed several microformats in the context of Google's good example of utilizing new technologies. But what exactly is a microformat? A primary source for microformat information is Technorati's developer wiki entry, which doesn't define the term, but rather illustrates around it."

Developers Wiki - MicroFormats 

Developers Wiki - MicroFormats
"microformats are:
a way of thinking about data
design principles for formats
adapted to current behaviors and usage patterns ("Pave the cow paths." - Adam Rifkin)
highly correlated with semantic XHTML, AKA the real world semantics, AKA lowercase semantic web, AKA lossless XHTML
described by Tantek's recent presentation at SXSW: The Elements of Meaningful XHTML
a set of simple open data format standards that many (including Technorati) are actively developing and implementing for more/better structured blogging and web microcontent publishing in general.
"An evolutionary revolution" - Ryan King
all the above. "

Eric's Archived Thoughts: Emergent Semantics 

Eric's Archived Thoughts: Emergent Semantics: "Just a quick link to my slide deck (when did that term gain currency, and why didn't I get a memo?) for "Emergent Semantics". I was honestly surprised by the number of attendees, and there were some great questions and ideas from audience members. Throughout the rest of the day, I had some great conversations with people about their own microformat ideas. Another measure of the level of interest in microformats and the semantic web was attendance at Tantek's "The Elements of Meaningful XHTML", which was so heavy that after the seats and floor space in his room filled up, a knot of people stood outside the door, turning their heads slightly and standing on tiptoe in an attempt to hear what he was saying."

Digitial Identity in Cyberspace 

Digitial Identity in Cyberspace: "Executive Summary
Currently there is no generic system for identification in cyberspace. It is not possible to absolutely identify an entity or to accurately tell whether an object has a specific characteristic. Digital environments have inherent differences from real space which causes this discrepancy, and when implementing an identity system for cyberspace one needs to consider more than just the architectural nature of the system - any system chosen will have social repercussions which need to be also taken into account.
Identity is a unique piece of information associated with an entity. Identity itself is simply a collection of characteristics which are either inherent or are assigned by another. The color of a person's hair and whether or not another thinks he is attractive is part of a person's identity.
Interactions done in real space inherently carry the identity of the person originating the transaction. Generally, physical traits are carried along in a transaction - for example when one purchases a book from a book store, the book dealer may remember the buyer's face or build.
The difference between real space and cyberspace is that the essence of any digital transaction is unbundling. Ones and zeros do not inherently carry any separate information along with them; a real space transaction carries along inseparable secondary information. Digital transmissions can only transmit; there is no secondary information encoded in the transmission unless explicitly put there. Thus, for authentication purposes, additional information needs to be carried with cyberspace transactions for identity purposes."

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