Saturday, May 28, 2005

The Behavior-Oriented Design of Modular Agent Intelligence 

The Behavior-Oriented Design of Modular Agent Intelligence
"Abstract.
Behavior-Oriented Design (BOD) is a development methodology for creating complex, complete agents such as virtual-reality characters, autonomous robots, intelligent tutors or intelligent environments. BOD agents are modular, but not multi-agent systems. They use hierarchical reactive plans to perform arbitration between their component modules. BOD provides not only architectural specifications for modules and plans, but a methodology for building them. The BOD methodology is cyclic, consisting of rules for an initial decomposition and heuristics for revising the specification over the process of development."

Google Search: "agent based modeling" "computational linguistics" 

Google Search: "agent based modeling" "computational linguistics"

Mike Dowman, - 2004 - Colour Terms, Syntax and Bayes: Modelling Acquisition and Evolution 

Mike Dowman, - 2004 - Colour Terms, Syntax and Bayes: Modelling Acquisition and Evolution: "Abstract
This thesis investigates language acquisition and evolution, using the methodologies of Bayesian inference and expression-induction modelling, making specific reference to colour term typology, and syntactic acquisition. In order to test Berlin and Kay's (1969) hypothesis that the typological patterns observed in basic colour term systems are produced by a process of cultural evolution under the influence of universal aspects of human neurophysiology, an expression-induction model was created. Ten artificial people were simulated, each of which was a computational agent. These people could learn colour term denotations by generalizing from examples using Bayesian inference, and the resulting denotations had the prototype properties characteristic of basic colour terms. Conversations between these people, in which they learned from one-another, were simulated over several generations, and the languages emerging at the end of each simulation were investigated. The proportion of colour terms of each type correlated closely with the equivalent frequencies found in the World Colour Survey, and most of the emergent languages could be placed on one of the evolutionary trajectories proposed by Kay and Maffi (1999). The simulation therefore demonstrates how typological patterns can emerge as a result of learning biases acting over a period of time.
Further work applied the minimum description length form of Bayesian inference to modelling syntactic acquisition. The particular problem investigated was the acquisition of the dative alternation in English. This alternation presents a learnability paradox, because only some verbs alternate, but children typically do not receive reliable evidence indicating which verbs do not participate in the alternation (Pinker, 1989). The model presented in this thesis took note of the frequency with which each verb occurred in each subcategorization, and so was able to infer which subcategorizations were conspicuously absent, and so presumably ungrammatical. Crucially, it also incorporated a measure of grammar complexity, and a preference for simpler grammars, so that more general grammars would be learned unless there was sufficient evidence to support the incorporation of some restriction. The model was able to learn the correct subcategorizations for both alternating and non-alternating verbs, and could generalise to allow novel verbs to appear in both constructions. When less data was observed, it also overgeneralized the alternation, which is a behaviour characteristic of children when they are learning verb subcategorizations. These results demonstrate that the dative alternation is learnable, and therefore that universal grammar may not be necessary to account for syntactic acquisition. Overall, these results suggest that the forms of languages may be determined to a much greater extent by learning, and by cumulative historical changes, than would be expected if the universal grammar hypothesis were correct."

Open Source Research, A Quiet Revolution 

Open Source Research, A Quiet Revolution:
"Abstract
The Open Source revolution is not limited to operating systems, file sharing and web servers. It is flourishing in other areas as well. This paper introduces the reader to a quiet revolution occurring in the research community, where open source research includes not only algorithms and shared techniques. It also includes hardware design and open community collaboration as well. One research community in particular, the complex adaptive systems researchers, is introduced here in detail."

Repast Agent Simulation Toolkit 

Repast Agent Simulation Toolkit: "The Recursive Porous Agent Simulation Toolkit (Repast) is one of several agent modeling toolkits that are available. Repast borrows many concepts from the Swarm agent-based modeling toolkit [1]. Repast is differentiated from Swarm since Repast has multiple pure implementations in several languages and built-in adaptive features such as genetic algorithms and regression. For reviews of Swarm, Repast, and other agent-modeling toolkits, see the survey by Serenko and Detlor, the survey by Gilbert and Bankes, and the toolkit review by Tobias and Hofmann [2] [3] [4]. In particular, Tobias and Hofmann performed a review of sixteen agent modeling toolkits and found that 'we can conclude with great certainty that according to the available information, Repast is at the moment the most suitable simulation framework for the applied modeling of social interventions based on theories and data' [4].
Repast is a free open source toolkit that was originally developed by Sallach, Collier, Howe, North and others [5]. Repast was created at the University of Chicago. Subsequently, it has been maintained by organizations such as Argonne National Laboratory. Repast is now managed by the non-profit volunteer Repast Organization for Architecture and Development (ROAD). ROAD is lead by a board of directors that includes members from a wide range of government, academic and industrial organizations. The Repast system, including the source code, is available directly from the web. "

Discovery of Linguistic Relations Using Lexical Attraction 

Discovery of Linguistic Relations Using Lexical Attraction: "Abstract:
This work has been motivated by two long term goals: to understand how humans learn language and to build programs that can understand language. Using a representation that makes the relevant features explicit is a prerequisite for successful learning and understanding. Therefore, I chose to represent relations between individual words explicitly in my model. Lexical attraction is defined as the likelihood of such relations. I introduce a new class of probabilistic language models named lexical attraction models which can represent long distance relations between words and I formalize this new class of models using information theory.
Within the framework of lexical attraction, I developed an unsupervised language acquisition program that learns to identify linguistic relations in a given sentence. The only explicitly represented linguistic knowledge in the program is lexical attraction. There is no initial grammar or lexicon built in and the only input is raw text. Learning and processing are interdigitated. The processor uses the regularities detected by the learner to impose structure on the input. This structure enables the learner to detect higher level regularities. Using this bootstrapping procedure, the program was trained on 100 million words of Associated Press material and was able to achieve 60% precision and 50% recall in finding relations between content-words. Using knowledge of lexical attraction, the program can identify the correct relations in syntactically ambiguous sentences such as ``I saw the Statue of Liberty flying over New York.'' "

Biosemiotics - Introduction 

Biosemiotics - Introduction: "Biosemiotics can be defined as the science of signs in living systems. A principal and distinctive characteristic of semiotic biology lays in the understanding that in living, entities do not interact like mechanical bodies, but rather as messages, the pieces of text. This means that the whole determinism is of another type. /../ The phenomena of recognition, memory, categorization, mimicry, learning, communication are thus among those of interest for biosemiotic research, together with the analysis of the application of the tools and notions of semiotics (text, translation, interpretation, semiosis, types of sign, meaning) in the biological realm"

What is biosemiotics? 

What is biosemiotics?:
"Values and semantic closure
Traditional physics never studied values (i.e., usefulness) of objects. But the notion of value is very important for understanding the phenomenon of life. Values can be applied also to various kinds of activity: eating, sleeping, moving, growing, reproducing, etc. By evaluating objects and processes, an organism subjectively interprets the world and itself, i.e. it builds its Umwelt (Uexkull 1940).

Usefulness is not a quality but a relation between an object and user. But at a closer look, a user is nothing but a collection of useful objects. Organs are tools that are used by an organism for performing specific functions, but there is nothing in the organism besides organs. Thus, the user is just a set of relations between useful parts. Obviously, not all kinds of relations can be considered useful. Some relations may destroy the system. Relations are useful only if they preserve and augment the same relations in the future, i.e., if these relations are self-reproducing. This idea was first formulated by Pattee (1982, 1995) and was called 'semantic closure'. Semantic closure is a new criterion for autonomy (or wholeness) of systems. A set of elements connected by relations is autonomous only if it is semantically closed, i.e., it reproduces itself in the future and defines its identity in the process of self-production. The value of each component or relation in an autonomous system corresponds to its contribution to the ability (or probability) of the system to reproduce itself.
.........
.........

Biologists may ask why to use semiotic terminology in simple population models? In particular, why to talk about semantic closure instead of self-reproduction? "Self-reproduction" seems to be a convenient term that does not have uncertainties associated with signs or semantics. But this simplicity is illusive; self-reproduction includes the word "self" which comes from the field of semiotics rather than physics or biology. In the process of self-reproduction, an organism defines itself; in other words, self is what is preserved in the process of self-reproduction. Self-reproduction is simultaneously a process of self-measurement, self-interpretation, and communication from parents to offsprings.
...........
...........

Human signs also have values, but this value is no longer connected with biological reproduction. Human evolution is driven more by the propagation of life styles (memes) rather than by propagation of genes. Memes are associated with specific human relations (e.g., ethical, religious, educational, etc.). The value of texts is associated with propagation of these relations. Peirce (1955) described only a half of the life cycle of a sign, i.e., the process of perception and recognition. He did not analyze the process of sign production which closes the cycle (semantic closure). According to Pattee (1995) each sign participates in a larger system with semantic closure. "

Friday, May 27, 2005

Agent-Based Modeling 

A GUIDE FOR NEWCOMERS TO AGENT-BASED MODELING
IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

"2. Agent-based modeling and the social sciences
The social sciences seek to understand not only how individuals behave but also how the interaction of many individuals leads to large-scale outcomes. Understanding a political or economic system requires more than an understanding of the individuals that comprise the system. It also requires understanding how the individuals interact with each other, and how the results can be more than the sum of the parts. ABM is well suited for this social science objective. It is a method for studying systems exhibiting the following two properties: (1) the system is composed of interacting agents; and (2) the system exhibits emergent properties, that is, properties arising from the interactions of the agents that cannot be deduced simply by aggregating the properties of the agents. When the interaction of the agents is contingent on past experience, and especially when the agents continually adapt to that experience, mathematical analysis is typically very limited in its ability to derive the dynamic consequences. In this case, ABM might be the only practical method of analysis."

This is all true of semantic systems as well. Semantics is an emergent coordination equilibrium among a population of agents. The real importance of Folksonomies is that they are the emergent results of iterative interactions of a society of human agents. Most designs for the semantic web so far lack this characteristic.

Guide for Newcomers to Agent-Based Modeling in the Social Sciences 

Guide for Newcomers to
Agent-Based Modeling in the Social Sciences
: "The purpose of this on-line guide is to suggest a short list of introductory readings and supporting materials to help newcomers become acquainted with Agent-Based Modeling (ABM). Our primary intended audience is graduate students and advanced undergraduate students in the social sciences. Teachers of ABM might also find this guide of use.
Unlike established methodologies such as statistics and mathematics, ABM has not yet developed a widely shared understanding of what a newcomer should learn. For decades, concepts such as the level of significance in statistics and the derivative in mathematics have been common knowledge that newcomers could be expected to learn. We hope that our selected readings and supporting materials will promote a shared understanding of ABM in the social sciences, not only among newcomers to ABM but also among researchers who already use ABM.
As a clarifying note on terminology, although this on-line guide is directed specifically to social scientists, researchers in a wide range of disciplines are now using ABM to study complex systems. When specialized to computational economic modeling, ABM reduces to Agent-based Computational Economics (ACE). "

Robert Axelrod's Home Page 

Robert Axelrod's Home Page: "Robert Axelrod is the Arthur W. Bromage Distinguished University Professor of Political Science and Public Policy at the University of Michigan. He has appointments in the Department of Political Science and the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy. Prior to coming to Michigan he taught at the University of California, Berkeley (1968-74). He holds a BA in mathematics from the University of Chicago (1964), and a PhD in political science from Yale (1969).
He is best known for his interdisciplinary work on the evolution of cooperation which has been cited in more than five hundred books and four thousand articles. His current research interests include complexity theory (especially agent-based modeling), and international security. Among his honors and awards are membership in the National Academy of Sciences, a five year MacArthur Prize Fellowship, the Newcomb Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences for an outstanding contribution to science, and the National Academy of Sciences Award for Behavioral Research Relevant to the Prevention of Nuclear War.
Recently Axelrod has consulted and lectured on promoting cooperation and harnessing complexity for the United Nations, the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Defense, and various organizations serving health care professionals, business leaders, and K-12 educators. "

Complexity of Cooperation, Robert Axelrod 

Complexity of Cooperation, Robert Axelrod
"This archive contains software, documentation, bibliographies, and other resources connected with Robert Axelrod's book The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration ( Princeton University Press, $18.95). You are welcome to read or download any of the materials on these pages for unrestricted use."

Wednesday, May 25, 2005

Jade - Java Agent DEvelopment Framework 

Jade - Java Agent DEvelopment Framework: "JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment Framework) is a software framework fully implemented in Java language. It simplifies the implementation of multi-agent systems through a middle-ware that complies with the FIPA specifications and through a set of graphical tools that supports the debugging and deployment phases. The agent platform can be distributed across machines (which not even need to share the same OS) and the configuration can be controlled via a remote GUI."

To Tag or Not to Tag, That Is the Question 

Opinion Column by PC Magazine: To Tag or Not to Tag, That Is the Question: "The 'folksonomy' notion is the bloggers' last hope of invention, although it's a rewrite of the prebubble 'semantic Web' technology at best. And it too is doomed to failure. The utopianism and idealism that exist in the online societies ignore the real problem with tags, metatags, Ubertags, folksonomies, and the like. This is because they honestly think that most people are goodhearted. The online world, because of its anonymity, encourages bad behavior. 'You suck!' is a common post, and it would be the number-one tag if tagging ever became popular." Emphasis is mine.

Tuesday, May 24, 2005

Private Language 

Private Language
"4.1 The Community View Revisited
Although, as was just said, the community view is not easily reconciled with part of Wittgenstein's text, the matter is less clear than has been indicated so far. Significantly, even the most careful, insightful and sympathetic of Wittgenstein's commentators have divided on this matter (for example, Malcolm for the community view, and Baker and Hacker against it). The dispute is partly explained by the fact that the original texts (including some from Wittgenstein's manuscripts) seem to point two ways, some supporting the account given above (that the burden of the argument is that language must be potentially social), others the community view that language is essentially social.
That is, textual support can be found for two apparently conflicting exegetical claims:
Language is essentially social.
It is conceptually (even if not psychologically) possible that a lifelong Crusoe (i.e., a human being isolated from birth) should employ some kind of linguistic system and follow rules in so doing.
And the contending parties share the assumption that the conflict is genuine.
There is, however, reason to believe that this assumption is false, for investigation of Wittgenstein's notions of essential, possible and lifelong Crusoe shows that admission of the first claim does not commit him to the denial of the second. To take the first notion: on Wittgenstein's view, while chess is essentially a game for two players, this does not exclude the possibility of playing it against oneself provided such solitary games are not regarded as paradigm instances of chess. Similarly, he can claim that language is essentially social, but still allow the possibility of exceptions provided these are peripheral cases." The emphasis is mine.

CiteULike: A free online service to organise your academic papers 

CiteULike: A free online service to organise your academic papers: "CiteULike is a free service to help academics to share, store, and organise the academic papers they are reading. When you see a paper on the web that interests you, you can click one button and have it added to your personal library. CiteULike automatically extracts the citation details, so there's no need to type them in yourself. It all works from within your web browser. There's no need to install any special software.
Because your library is stored on the server, you can access it from any computer. You can share you library with others, and find out who is reading the same papers as you. In turn, this can help you discover literature which is relevant to your field but you may not have known about.
You're currently looking at a list of the last few papers submitted by all the CiteULike users. Why not register for a free account today and start organising your collection and see just the articles you're interested in? All we need is your email address, a username, and a password. It should take less than fifteen seconds.
Alternatively, you can read more about CiteULike. "

43 Things 

43 Things: "Discover what's important, make it happen, share your progress. Find your 43 things."

Monday, May 23, 2005

A Channel-Theoretic Foundation for Ontology Coordination 

A Channel-Theoretic Foundation
for Ontology Coordination

"Abstract. We address the mathematical foundations of the ontology coordination problem and investigate to which extend the Barwise-Seligman theory of information flow may provide a faithful theoretical description of the problem. We give a formalisation of the coordination of populated ontologies based on instance exchange that captures progressive partial semantic integration. We also discuss the insights that the Barwise-Seligman theory provides to the general ontology coordination problem."

UB Reporter: "Machine learning" is Beal's focus 

UB Reporter: "Machine learning" is Beal's focus: "MIT calls it one of the hot 10 emerging technologies that will change your world: Bayesian Machine Learning. It also happens to be the focal point of research for Matthew J. Beal, who last fall joined the faculty in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences."

CSci 8551: Intelligent Agents 

CSci 8551: Intelligent Agents: "Textbook
'Multiagent systems. A modern approach to Distributed Artificial Intelligence.' edited by Gerhard Weiss. The MIT Press, 1999. ISBN: 0262731312
The textbook will be supplemented by additional papers. Look at the week by week schedule for additional required readings. Each week shows additional related material that you might find useful to get additional insights into the topics. Additional sources of information are listed under General Sources. "

On the Emerging Science of the Internet and the Web 

On the Emerging Science of the Internet and the Web
Author: Orestis A. Telelis Format: PDF Date: 2003
From the Introduction:
"Meanwhile some people had the idea of linking computers together, so that they could achieve communication between the machines and, eventually, between themselves. The enormous Internet of computers has since emerged, and above it a major document retrieval and presentation application, theWorld WideWeb (WWW). The net has grown so enormously anarchic and huge, that perhaps it is now time to start studying the human activity on it. Will this be the emrgence of a new kind of science? Well the previously mentioned mathematicians will disagree with it, but hopefully the computer scientists will acknowledge its importance as a theoretical discipline of their field."

Alessandro Agostini Papers Available Electronically 

Alessandro Agostini Papers Available Electronically A page of papers found with the following keywords in Google search, "coordination equilibrium semantic web"

Sunday, May 22, 2005

UMBC eBiquity Publication: A Bayesian Methodology towards Automatic Ontology Mapping 

UMBC eBiquity Publication: A Bayesian Methodology towards Automatic Ontology Mapping: "Abstract: This paper presents our ongoing effort on developing a principled methodology for automatic ontology mapping based on BayesOWL, a probabilistic framework we devel-oped for modeling uncertainty in semantic web. The pro-posed method includes four components: 1) learning prob-abilities (priors about concepts, conditionals between sub-concepts and superconcepts, and raw semantic similarities between concepts in two different ontologies) using Naive Bayes text classification technique, by explicitly associating a concept with a group of sample documents retrieved and selected automatically from World Wide Web (WWW); 2) representing in OWL the learned probability information concerning the entities and relations in given ontologies; 3) using the BayesOWL framework to automatically translate given ontologies into the Bayesian network (BN) structures and to construct the conditional probability tables (CPTs) of a BN from those learned priors or conditionals, with reason-ing services within a single ontology supported by Bayesian inference; and 4) taking a set of learned initial raw similari-ties as input and finding new mappings between concepts from two different ontologies as an application of our for-malized BN mapping theory that is based on evidential rea-soning across two BNs. "

SOCABE'2005 

SOCABE'2005: "The purpose of this workshop is to discuss recent and significant developments in the general areas of Service Oriented Computing and Multi Agent Systems, and to promote cross-fertilization of techniques between these areas. The Service Oriented Computing approach to building complex software systems bears many similarities to approaches based on software agents. Many important issues are relevant to both areas, and solutions to these may draw on techniques from both. Possible topics of interest include: architectural approaches; modelling and design techniques; service discovery, brokering and selection; service composition and workflows; service level agreement negotiation and quality-of-service management; semantic services; security models; standards."

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