Thursday, June 02, 2005

Hacking Books with Safari Web Services 

O'Reilly Network: Hacking Books with Safari Web Services: "Safari Web Services
Safari Books Online is a joint venture between O'Reilly Media Inc., and The Pearson Technology Group. For the past three years, they've been making offline technical books available on the Web. This means developers can search through the entire contents of thousands of technical books just like anything else on the Web, looking for the code fragment or explanation that solves a task at hand.
This July, Safari took things a step further by releasing their web services API, giving developers programmatic access to their data. This means that not only can developers search through technical books and read the contents through a web browser--they can route that Safari data anywhere they need it.
The Safari API has a REST interface, with request URLs returning XML over HTTP. The response XML is organized by elements with child elements containing all of the data about that particular book"

OpenID: an actually distributed identity system 

OpenID: an actually distributed identity system: "What
This is a distributed identity system, but one that's actually distributed and doesn't entirely crumble if one company turns evil or goes out of business.
An OpenID identity is just a URL. You can have multiple identities in the same way you can have multiple URLs. All OpenID does is provide a way to prove that you own a URL (identity). And it does this without passing around your password, your email address, or anything you don't want it to. There's no profile exchange component at all: your profiile is your identity URL, but recipients of your identity can then learn more about you from any public, semantically interesting documents linked thereunder (FOAF, RSS, Atom, vCARD, etc.).
Anybody can run their own site using OpenID, and anybody can be an OpenID server, and they all work with each other without having to register with or pay anybody to 'get started'.
While nothing in the protocol requires JavaScript or modern browsers, the authentication scheme plays nicely with 'AJAX'-style setups, so you can prove your identity to a site without bouncing between pages."

URI Naming Guidelines 

User Modeling Meta-Ontology: Request For Comments: URI Naming Guidelines
"I'd like some comments on the following URI Naming Guidelines. When assigning names for resources, it is important that they are stable and easy to generate with our available tools. One must also be mindful of privacy implications. Hopefully these guidelines will help easy the uncertanity when designing them."

Wednesday, June 01, 2005

Bill de hOra: RDF: I fought the markup 

Bill de hOra: RDF: I fought the markup: "I spoke with a colleague of mine yesterday. He's working with XUL/Mozilla at the moment. His least favourite bit? The RDF/XML. Hates it. Since he knows I'm an RDF fan, he rightly wonders what could I see in it. So... here's a six year old markup language, that started with three syntactic forms all lumped together; that was an early testbed for how to use namespaces; whose opportunity for real development in the W3C was hamstrung by its charter (and yet, while equally constrained, the model was rewritten from the ground up). Even its own working group didn't use it."

Blahsploitation ... 

Blahsploitation ...: "Danny Ayers is still valiantly defending the Semantic Web.

But frankly, all the alleged rebuttals are just shooting at a straw-man of their own.

The basic Clay Shirky critique of the SW is that the pain outweighs the potential benefits, and so it's not going to work. Instead, we're going to get machine-readable markup by small, self-interested increments rather than using the W3C solution. Two years on, that assertion looks pretty strongly backed up by events."

Tuesday, May 31, 2005

Google Search: "agent based modeling" eai 

Google Search: "agent based modeling" eai

The simulation of vocabulary agreement 

Juan de Lara and Manuel Alfonseca: The simulation of vocabulary agreement: "In this paper, we present several experiments of belief propagation in multi-agent communities. Each agent in the simulation has an initial random vocabulary (4 words) corresponding to each possible movement (north, south, east and west). Agents move and communicate the associated word to the surrounding agents, which can be convinced by the 'speaking agent', and change their corresponding word by 'imitation'. Vocabulary uniformity is achieved, but strong interactions and competition can occur between dominant words. Several moving and trusting strategies as well as agent roles are analyzed. "

Google Search: "language evolution" "agent based modeling" 

Google Search: "language evolution" "agent based modeling"

Self-organization and Selection in the Emergence of Vocabulary 

Self-organization and Selection in the Emergence of Vocabulary
Human language may have started from a consistent set of mappings between meanings and signals. These mappings, referred to as the early vocabulary, are considered to be the results of conventions established among the agents of a population. In this study, we report simulation models for investigating how such conventions can be reached. We propose that convention is essentially the product of self-organization of the population through interactions among the agents; and that cultural selection is another mechanism that speeds up the establishment of convention. Whereas earlier studies emphasized either one or the other of these two mechanisms, our focus is to integrate them into one hybrid model. The combination of these two complementary mechanisms, i.e. self-organization and cultural selection, provides a plausible explanation for cultural evolution which progresses with high transmission rate. Furthermore, we observe that as the vocabulary tends to convergence there is a uniform tendency to exhibit a sharp phase transition."

From the Conclusion:
"Our approach of studying the emergence of patterns from the interactions among the agents falls into the general setting of agent-based modeling, which has been widely used in the study of various complex systems with emergent properties. There are only a small number of rules describing each agent’s behavior. However, the order emerges from the locally coupled interactions [28].

The reported imitation and interaction models show that interaction between agents in a population can cause them to arrive at a coherent vocabulary. We speculate that, especially in the early stages of language emergence when there was no established communication system, synchronic interactions among agents were possibly the only way for early humans to form conventions and to attain mutual understanding. The imitation and interaction models have allowed us to study how the convention may be achieved under various conditions. The simulations demonstrate that without external design or driving force, coherence among the entire population can be reached only through self-organization by each agent. Each agent concentrates on adjusting him/herself to be better understood by others and to better understand others for his/her own benefit. Nevertheless, this individual focus can lead to global consistency.

The interaction hypothesis, however, only works with small populations and small vocabulary size. We speculate that cultural selection plays a role in speeding up and passing on the progress of interaction between agents through generations. Those vocabularies which have a higher fitness through self-organization will have a higher probability to be transmitted to the next generation. Such an external selection mechanism accumulates the benefits obtained by each agent and spreads them through the population, and therefore speeds up the emergence of a consistent communication system."

The Semantics of Metaphor in the Game Theoretic Semantics with at Least Two Coordination Equilibria 

The Semantics of Metaphor in the Game Theoretic Semantics with at Least Two Coordination Equilibria
The objective of this paper is to present a new dimension of Game Theoretic Semantics (GTS) using the idea of the coordination problem game to explain the semantics of metaphor. A metaphorical expression1 such as ‘man is a wolf’ is a contradictory statement that insists all objects in the set of ‘man’ also falls under ‘wolf’. The study of metaphorical expression should be on intentions of such contradictory language use, their intended effect, and the conditions to lead to the effects. This is the tradition of Rhetoric since Aristotle. It may be natural to characterize this approach as pragmatic in the tradition of the late 20th century paradigm of linguistics, which is the trichotomy of syntax, semantics and pragmatics. However the pragmatic approach cannot explain what Richards (1936) called ‘tension’ between two thoughts in a metaphorical expression. GTS has been developed as a possible substitute to the Tarskian truth conditional semantics. This paper explores a new possibility of GTS in the coordination problem game introduced by Lewis (1961) for a semantics, which admits the plurality of meanings."

What's next after AJAX? 

What's next after AJAX? | InfoWorld | Analysis | 2005-05-23 | By Rohit Khare: "The rapid spread of the term AJAX (asynchronous JavaScript and XML) -- from Weblog to Wall Street Journal within weeks! -- might lead developers to assume it�s a breakthrough that heralds the death of desktop applications. There�s certainly a kernel of truth in that: The recent spate of new Web applications under the AJAX banner have redefined end-users� expectation of what�s even possible within a Web browser by offering smooth scrolling, incremental updates, and more responsive input forms. "

Search on TAP: Documentation 

Search on TAP: Documentation: "Search on TAP is an end-user Semantic Web application which uses Semantic Web technologies and techniques to create a search engine that can answer queries traditional search engines don't do very well with"

Nevow: A Web Application Construction Kit 

Nevow: A Web Application Construction Kit: "Nevow is a web application construction kit, based on the ideas developed in the Twisted Woven package. Its main focus is on separating the HTML template from both the business logic and the display logic, while allowing the programmer to write pure Python code as much as possible. It has various parts which can be used individually or as a whole, integrated web solution:"

Monday, May 30, 2005

Google Search: agent semantics 

Google Search: agent semantics

Using Conceptual Graphs to Capture Semantics of Agent Communication 

Using Conceptual Graphs to Capture Semantics of Agent Communication
"Abstract. Agent communication languages such as KQML and the FIPA ACL serve as metalanguages to define software agent message-passing protocols. These metalanguages are incompatible with each other, preventing intercommunication between agents employing different agent communication languages. The primary hindrance to agent intercommunication is the different underlying semantics of the message passing protocols. Conceptual graphs provide a mechanism to bridge this agent communication barrier by representing the semantics of message-passing protocols in the formal representation of conceptual graphs. Semantic content of the KQML tell performative is contrasted with that of the FIPA ACL inform performative and represented in conceptual graphs. The intent is that software agents conversant in CGIF may intelligently translate messages between agents employing different agent communication languages."

Sunday, May 29, 2005

Google Search: "agent based modeling" "game theoretical" semantics 

Google Search: "agent based modeling" "game theoretical" semantics

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