Tuesday, May 22, 2007

IKL Guide 

IKL Guide: "IKL is a logical formalism designed for interchange and archiving of information in a network of logic-based reasoners. IKL is extremely expressive and can represent the same content as a wide variety of formal notations, but it has a simple 'classical' logical semantics and can be processed by conventional first-order logic engines. IKL is a variant of the CLIF dialect of ISO Common Logic [CL], extended with terms which denote propositions and a device for relating names to the character strings which are used to indicate them. Common Logic is a proposed ISO standard for a general-purpose first-order information exchange language, based loosely on KIF [KIF]. The design rationale for CL is explained in [CL]; in summary, it is designed to remove or avoid as many restrictions as possible on what can be said in a first-order language, and to facilitate knowledge interchange across a network. IKL follows in the same tradition. IKL achieves its unique expressiveness from its ability to quantify over the propositions expressed by its own sentences, which in effect allows it to be its own meta-language, so it can bring the full expressive power of logic to the task of talking about propositions as well as simply expressing propositions by sentences. This single device can replace a wide variety of 'alternative' logics, including modal, context, temporal and indexical logics, by various ontologie"

Monday, May 21, 2007

Breaking Network Logjams -- [ INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ]: Scientific American 

Breaking Network Logjams -- [ INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ]: Scientific American: "Bits Are Not Cars

Ahlswede and his colleagues built their proposal in part on the idea, introduced by Shannon, that transmitting evidence about data can actually be more useful than conveying the data directly. They also realized that a receiver would be able to deduce the original data once enough clues had been gathered but that the receiver would not need to obtain all of the evidence emitted. One kind of clue could be replaced by another, and all that was important was receiving some combination of clues that, together, would reveal the original message. (Receivers would be able to make sense of the evidence if they were informed in advance about the rules applied to generate it or if instructions on how to use the evidence were included in the evidence itself.)
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PatHelland's WebLog : SOA and Newton's Universe 

PatHelland's WebLog : SOA and Newton's Universe: "Classic database/transaction approaches to Consistency choose to emphasize read-write semantics. To preserve Read-Write-Consistency, you lock the data. We've been at this for over 30 years. What I see happening in loosely-coupled systems is identical to how businesses operated 150-200 years ago when messages were sent with couriers running across the city between businesses. You allocated (i.e. reserved) the ability to perform an operation and then later on you would take the confirming step to ensure the completion of the work. Today, you make a reservation at a hotel and then later on you show up to complete the operation. What is the definition of consistency in this world? It is the successful remembering of the reservation and then keeping a room for you. The reserved room count is not locked waiting for you to decide if you want the reservation, waiting for you to cancel, nor while waiting to see if you show up. The definition of consistency evolves to one that is explicitly including independence and loose-coupling."

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